Biotechnology B3

Basic notes on biotechnology and animal behavior for the b3 exam

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Biotechnology. B3

Notes: soy sauce process
Soy beans and roasted wheat added together
Fermented first time by asspergillus
Fermented second by yeast
Fermented third by lacto bacillus
Put into bottles.
bacteria used to ferment milk to turn into yogurt
Vegetarian cheese made with enzyme chymosin ( remember , will be asked)
Prebiotics: to stimulate beneficial bacteria!
Examples: plant stanol esters and oligosaccharides.
Olig- found in onions and leeks
Pse: found In small amounts produced commercially.

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Biotechnology B3

Study of organisms entire genome, helps to develop new medicines.
For example genomics and biotechnology used together to produce blood clotting factors, hemophiliacs need this as they can not clot blood and it stops them from bleeding heavily.
Aspirin found in willow tree is a pain relief.
Taxol found in bark of pacific yew tree, treatments of some cancers.
Quinine found in bark of cinchona tree, treatment of malaria
Artemisinin found in Chinese plant atemisia annua treatment of malaria.
Human insulin made by GE.
Previously cow insulin was used but it had side affects and vegetarians couldn't use it ethics ect.
GE of insulin was a great breakthrough and helped people with diabetes

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Biotechnology + animal behavior B3

Stages of insulin...
1 gene foe human insulin is cut out of the human DNA using social enzymes called restriction enzymes. They leave sticky ends
2 a ring of bacterial DNA is cut open.
3 the human DNA is instead into bacterial DNA. Sticky ends attach to the bacterial DNA by enzyme ligase.
4 the bacterial DNA and human DNA is called recombiant DNA. The bacterium can now reproduce.

Animal behavior:
Instinctive: inherited from parents and are not affected by environment.
Conditioning: an animal learns with out trying, shaking lead before walk makes it know its going for a walk ect.
Animals communicate with other species to warn them off and call for mate ect.

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Animal and human behavior B3

Animals ways of communicating
Sounds- snakes hiss, cats meow, big cats growl warning off.
Whales can communicate from really far away, so can birds but only a few metres
Producing smells
Pheronomes release Into their own environments to attract a mate , scare off competitors mark out territory ect.
Signals like thumping foot( rabbit) to show danger ect
Facial expressions and body posture
We humans are more complex because we can write and speak.
Most animals also use tools for food, like chimpanzees and orangutans

Oldest to youngest
Australopithicus afarensis, homo erectus, homo heidelbergensis , homo , homo sapiens.

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