Clones in nature
Definie clone? In biology it describes? when are identical twins produced? What sort of twins? When do plants produce clones? Bacteria? What happens in all of these processes? What is there a disticnction between? What is the production of cloned DNA is a process for? How can it also be achieved?
How do prokaryotes divide? What does their dna do? What dose the cell do? What is produced? Provided there are no what? what is the basis for asexual reproduction in eukaryotes? What deos the genetic material do? Forming two? Each containing what? what happens in signle celled eukaryotic organisms? What about multicellular organism? Particularly? What are the advanatges of asexual reproduction? Allows the ornaism to do what rapidly? And take advantage of? When can it be completed if what fails? What do all offspring have? Whats the disadvantage? Why is this a disadavantage? Example?
How does asexual reproduction take place in plants? Give example? What dos this allow? Such as? Wher do thse grow from? Wheres that? Why? What do root suckers help? Why? why would the tree be stressed or die? What happens here? Called? What does this in turn cause? Whats an elm disease? What ghappened? What caused it? How did the elm respnd? What happens when they get to 10cm in diameter? What are the new ones? What don’t they have? What do they remain? Whats it there none of? What doesn’t occur?
Artifical clones and agriculture
What are farmers able to do? What are the two main methods? What is cut? Called what is the ecut end treated with? To encourage? And then? What do they form? Which is a? whats good about this? In grafting what is done? Known as? What grows? What is it? What is different?
Although useful whats wrong with cuttings and graphs? Whast the other problem? What do more modern methods use? To generate ? from? What can tissure culture use to generate? Whats the added advtange? What si the most common method in large scale cloning? Name a household plant? What is taken from the plant going to be cloned? Usually from? What is this called? Where is this placed? What do cells in the tissue do?? But not? What do they form? CalleD? What can happen after a few wells? Placed where? Containing what? that encourage? What happens after a few more weeks? Containg what? that encourage? Where are the growing plants placed? To be? Before?
What has selective breeding resulted in? why? What can some crops be grown from? How are bananas grown? What does propagation using callus culture mean? What is this essentially? Whats faster? Why? What is the disadvante? What does genetic uniformity mean? What is regulated? Why?
In animals what are the embryonic cells only capable of? What are they described as? i.e.? what are they able to do? What are the two methods of cloning? What can cells from a developing embryo do? With each one going on to do what? what are they? What have been cloned? What can a differentiated cell from an adult do? What is such a cell described as? What does the egg then go through? Using? Where was the cell taken from for oddly? Where was its nucleus transplanted? And then inserted? Name three advatanges? Name three disadvanatges?
What is one of the most significant potential developments in cloning? Name an advanteg of this? What could it mean an end to? what can they be used to develop? Why? What cant some disease and accidens be caused by? Is it more or less dangerous than an operation? Name three reasons why not to clone? What are the techniques often refreed to as? Why would people object? Whats another rway? What could this replace?
What is biotechnology? Give examples? what does biotechnology has applications in four major areas? Name them give examples? the production of foods, the production of drugs, the production of enzymes and the bioremeditation of waste product- give examples, name organism involved?
What does biotechnology make use of? Examples? why microgranisms? What do they often produce? To where? What can they be genetically enigenered to produce? At what low temps?where can they be grown? What do they tend to generate? Than those where? What can they often be grown using? What if they werent used here?
The growth curve
What is a culture? What If a small number of organisms placed in a closed culture environment will undergo? In what way? Plotting the graph gives what? what does closed culture refer to? what isn’t added? What isn’t removed? Lag phase- what are the organisms doing? What do they take in? what does ti do? Activating? Synthesing? What are the cells? But not? What does the population remain? What does the length of this period depend on? Log phase- also known as? What does the population size do? What does every generation have? What does the length of this phase depne on? Stationary phase- what does nutrient level do? What about waste level? Individual organisms die at what rate? What would this be in an open system? Decline or death phase- what about nutrient level? Waste level? What do they lead to? eventually what will happen?
What is the term fermentation applied to? in particular the production of? Through? These naturally produced fermentation product come from? What does it now also refer to? what happens tot ehs usbatnces generated by growth of microorganisms?
What does metabolism refer to? what do these processes produce? Why do the waste products produced vary? What are the waste products sometomes used for? What are the terms primary and secondary metabolites are used to refer to? what are primary metabolites? As part of what growth? What do they include? What does the production of these match the growth of? Secondary metabolites are? What are almost all secondary metabolites? When does the production of thse usually begin? What dosnt it match? Why do they need to produce primary metabolites? How many produce secondary?
Commercial applications of biotechnology
What do commercial applications of biotechnology often require? On what scale? What is an indsutrail scale fermenter? A capacity for how much? What can happen to the growing conditions? To ensure? What do the precisegrowing conditions depdn on? And also? What does temperature have to be? What about type and time of addition of nutrient? Oxygen concentration? Ph? What do such large cultures need? How are these obtained?
What are the two ways industrial scale fermentations be operated in? Batch- what is the starter population mixed with? Then allowed to do what? for what period? With no what? what happens at the end of the period? Name one? Continuous- what is added ? what is removed? When? Name sme? Advnatges and disadvnatges for each ?
What can the medium the microrganisms grows on could also support?what is an unwanted microorganism called? What do unwanted microorganism compete with? Reduce? May cause? May produce? May destroy? What processes can be contaminated? What must happen to them? What does the term aseptic technique refer to? that is? Through what? gie techniques for aspetic and measures at laboratory and start culture level? And at large scale culture level
Give on reason enzymes are useful in industrial processes? Meaning? Even in what mixtures? What does this mean fewer are formed? Less of what is needed? another reason? How do enzymes function at low temps? Lower than what? what deos this save? What have also been extracted?what are they? In the biotechnological processes what are cultured? On what scale? To generate?in many areas of research and indsutrail processes what is required? What is it often more efficient to use? Ratehrt than? What quantity can isolated enzymes be produced? In what processes? What is the extraction from the fermentation mixture known as? A term used to describe?
What must collide for a product to be generated from an enzyme controlled reaction? Forming? How is this mstoly achieved? Under what thjough? What needs to happen next? Whats wrong with this? What is it possible to do? So they they do what? but don’t? give advanatges for immobloised enzymes in large scale production? And disadvtanges? What is immoblisiation?
What are the four possible methods for immobilising enzymes? What is the precise method used for a particular pocess depend on? Such as? What do adsorption and covalent bonding inbolbe? Wheras entrapment and membrane separation hold? Adsorption- enzyme molecules are mixed with? What does this do? Due to? give example of agents? What is leakage? Provided the enzyme molecules are held and what isn’t changed? What can adsorption give? Covalent bonding- what are enzymes covalently bonded to? often how is this done? Such as? Using what? like? What does this method not do? What is the binding like? What is there little of? Entrapment- what happens to enzyme? Give example? How are the enzymes trapped? i.e.? what is reduced? Why? What does this mean for the active site? Compared to? Membranes Separation- what may enzymes be? By what? where is the enzyme solution held? Whilst? What passes through the membrane ? why? So what takes place? What passes backj? Why?
Studying whole genomes
What is dna profiling use in? what is genomic sequencing and comparative gneome mapping used in? what is genetic enigering used in? what is gene therapy used for?what is It important to note? What can dna strands be cut into? Using? What are the strands separated by? Using? And then? To produce what? whats this process called? What can dna fragments be analsued for? What can dna fragemnts also be? Using? What are dna probes used for? What do such techniques mean?
What does the dna of all organisms contain? Known as? What do these code for? What percent is coding gene? What is the rest called? Referred to as? What does this carry out? Do we know? What is research aiming to do? What is genomics? Seeking to do? What will comparing genes and regulatory sequences of organisms help us to understand?
Studying whole genomes
When can the sequencing reaction only operate? What must this mean for the genome? What ensure that the assembled code is accurate? What forms the completed code? Whats the first stage? To idefnify? What is used? Give example? What happens to samples of the genome? Meaning? Into what? how many base pair? What si this osmetiems referred to as? What are these sections are placed into?? Transferred to? what happens as cells grow in culture? What are they referred to as? Sequecning a BAC section- cells containg BAC are what? what is extracted? What is used to cut it? What does th use of different restriction enzymes give? Whats the process that seperates fragments? What is each fragemtn sequenced using? What do compute programme do? In order to?
What have a wide variety of organism genomes? What is comparative gene mapping? This has w ide range of applications give one? Comparing the DNA/genes of species shows? The more they share the more? What can be carried out? Give example? How can this help in disease? What can this lead to the identification of? What can happen to the DNA of individuals? What can this reveal?
DNA manipulation - separating and probing
What is electrophoresis used to separate? Based on? What is this process accurate enough to do?where is this commonly used? To seperte what for what? what does the technique use? Containg ? a type of? Covered in? what are attached to each end of the gel? So what? why does the separation of strands at different lengths occur? Procedure- dna samples are treated with? To do what? where are they placed? What does the gel go? What is passed through? What charge is DNA? Why? What is it atrtarcted to? so what do the DNA fragments do?what move faster? And so? What can show the position of the fragments? What can the fragments be used for? What si this technique called? What is palced over the gel? Covered in what? and then? What happens to the dna fragments? What aren’t visible on the sheet? What is the simpliest method to show up ? what can be palced on it? What if one particular gene is beign searched for?
What is a DNA probe? What is complementary to? name one way a probe is labelled? Usually using what? so whatc an be revealed? Or using a? what does it emit? When? What aer they also used in? what can the copies of the probe be added to? why will they bind to any fragment? Where? What is this binding known as? Probes are useful in locating specific sequences for example? (3) what can analysing the patients DNA using a probe show? What are the probes made for? Applying the DNA sample to the syrface reveal?
Sequencing and copying DNA -1
What is PCR? What is it basically? What can it be carried out on? To generate? What is this particularly useful in? for what? example? What they be? Reffered to as? In order to generate? What does this sequencing reaction rely on the fact DNA is made of? Made of strands that have? Grows? Base pairs up according? How does it differ to DNA replication? What is required for the process to start? Why is a cycle of heating and cooling used ? what enzyme seperates strands in the natural process? What is the DNA sample mixed with?and? what is it heated to?why? making the sampels what? what are added? What are these called? What is reduced to? allowing what? forming?what cant he DNA polymerse bind to? what is the temp rasised to? the what temp? what does the enzyme extend? As the same as? What happens when the DNA polymerase reaches the other end of the DNA? What can the whole process be done? What deos ted NA increase? What is the enzyme polyermase described as? Because? What is it derived from? Where does it grow?
Sequencing and copying DNA -2
What was initially used to sequence fragments of DNA? What do we do now? What has it led to? what does the reaction mixture contain? What do some of the free floating nucleotides carry? what has happened to these nucletoides? What if they are added to the growing chain? What does each nucleotide type have? What happens in the reaction first? Allowing what to attach? What does DNA polymerase add? According to? what does the strand do? What is this essentialy the same as? What if a modified nucltoeide is added? What is made as the reaction proceeds? What about the size of the fragments? How short can they be? What about others? What happens in both cases? What happens as these strands run through the machine? Same as? From what strand to what? then what? what can then be displayed? Before the genome project what did scientists expect to find? What did they find? Same as? What did it appear human complexity was associated with?
An introduxtion to genetic engineering
What do scientists often refer to the process involved in genetic engineering? Why? what does genetic enigeneering describe? What is the organism receiving the gene calle?d? what does It do? Through what? what are the organisms described as? What are the four necessary steps in genetic engineering? Give the methods for each of this?
What do recombinant DNA techniques often involve? Give example? What are used to cut through DNA at speicifc points? Called? Where were these first extracted from? What do they perform there? How many different one? when will a particular restriction enzyme cut? What is this sequence called? How long? What sort of reaction do most enzyme restioconts cataluse? What does it break? What does this give? What does it leave? What is used when fragments need to be stuck together? What does it catalyse? What does it join? What is this enzyme the same as? To seal? To form? What do both need to have to join? What does this mean for the ends? How are they bonded? What can then seal the backbone? When DNA fragments from different organisms are joined what is the resulting DNA called?
genetic engineering and bacteria
What are the two main reasons for carrying out genetic engineering? Give an example of improving a feature in plants? And animals? Give example of engineering organisms to synthesise useful products such as human hormone? Such as pharmaceutical chemical? For beta carotene production?
What can happen to a gene once it has been identified to be placed into another organism? Using? Placed where? What does the vast majority of genetic engineering use as the vector? What is a plasmid? What are they found in? what are they separate from? What do they often carry? what if plasmids are cut with the same restriction enzyme that is used to isolate the gene? What does mixing quantities of plasmid and gene in the presence of ligase enzyme mean for some? What happens to it then? Forming? What will many cut plasmids in the presence of ligase enzyme do?? What are large quantitis of the plasmid mixed with? What will some take up? What is added? Whats the temp? what happens to the temp? what dose this do? Is the process efficient? Why? what are those that do? What does this transformation result in? what are these bacteria then?
What process are bacteria capable of? What si this? What happens to plasmid DNA in the process? What do plasmids often carry genes associated with? Why is this swapping of plasmids a concern? Give a restraint strain of bacteria? What are they causing? Why? where can it be a concern? What aer scientist looking for? What is the advanatnage of conjugation?
Engineering case studies 1: human insulin
What do people who can produce insulin suffer from? Where did we use to extract insulin from? Is it identical to human? How is it different? Why expensive? What was discovered insulin was? How many amino acids? Why was it hard to find in the genome? How big is the code for the polyppeite? How many bases? What did scientists focus on finding? What methods did they use? To dop what? what did they do once they found it? What did this effecitvly give? How is it different? What was added to make the second strand? What did it use? Like in what? what does this produce? Called? What is added at each end? To give? What is cut open? With what? mixed with? What do some plasmids do? What seals up the plasmids? What are they now called? Why? what are the plasmids mixed with? What do some take up? What are the bacteria grown on? What does each bacterial cell grow to produce? Called? How many types of colony may grow in this process? Name them? Can you tell the difference by looking?
Originally how was the transformed bacteria identified? What do modern methods of identification use? Why are the orginal palsmids chosen? Usually? What are these resistance genes known as? What is the bacteria sucesptible to? what happens to the plasmids? By? That has its? Called? Where? What if the required gene is taken up? What does still work? What process is then used? What are the bacteria grown on? So all bacterial cells grow? What is transferred onto agar? What was this made with? So what will only grow? What are others transferred tp? So only what grow? What needs to be track? Wat do we then know? What can we identify? And then? What do the bacteri produce?
What is gene therapy? What could we do with the working copy of the gene? Why would the individual may no longer show symptoms assoictaed with the genetic disorder? What did the development brought about by the human genome project lead to? such as? What could this do? How? What is the only use for this at present?
What happens to cells as organism grow? What happens to genes in specilaised cells? What does the cell still contain? Meaning? What are few of them involved in? what is gene thereap where genes are added? What are some conditions caused by? Leading to the loss of? Such as? What can be done? What does this mean? Or gene therapy can do what to specific cells? Give example? How can they be treated? Using genetic techniques to do what? such as? What does this make the cel less?
When do all embryos begin? Forming a? what does it undergo? What is each cell of an embryo? What can these do? What can they also become? What are these called? What would engineering a gene into sperm, egg, zygot or all cells of an embryo mean for the organism? Where can this gene function? What are some transgenic animals? what happens to the functioning allel they receive? Is this the case for somatic cell gene therapy? What is the genetic modification restricted to? no effect on what? can the indidvual who has had geen thereapy for a genetic disorder can still pass the allel on? When is germline gene therapy illegal? And unacceptable how? What has this been decided by? Such as? What do they say? Give four differences between somatic and germline cell gene therapy- where are the functioning alleles introduced? What are the delievery techniques here? Which have long and short term? Explain? Which is more straightford to get into the genome? Why? which is unethical? What are the restirctions for each?