Biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms in making products, for example, chemicals and food.

Different microbes (mocroorganisms) can be used to make foods, such as yoghurt and soy sauce.

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Making Soy Sauce

Soy sauce is made from fermented, cooked coy beans and roasted wheat. The process uses yeast, and Aspergillus and Lactobacillus bacteria, fermentation and filtration.

  • Cooked soy beans and roasted wheat are mixed together
  • Fermented by Aspergillus (a fungus)
  • Fermented a second time by yeasts (fungi)
  • Fermented a third time by Lactobacillus (a bacterium)
  • Soy sauce is filtered (to remove particles)
  • Pasteurised (to kill microorganisms)
  • Bottled (in sterile bottles)
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Making Yoghurt

Bacteria are used in the production of yoghurt from milk. The bacteria ferment the milk and change it into yoghurt.

Milk contains lactose sugar

  • Yoghurt bacteria added
  • Heated to 40 C
  • Yoghurt bacteria cause fermentation - Lactose
  • Lactic acid (gives yoghurt it's sharp taste)
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