The production of foods
Cheese and yoghurt making - Bacterial (Lactobacillus) growth in milk changes the flavour and texture of the milk to generate a different food. These bacteris prevent the growth of other bacteria that would cause spoilage, and so preserve the food.
Mycoprotein - Growth of a specific fungus (Fusarium) in culture. The fungal mycelium produced is seperated and processes as food.
Naturally brewed soya sauce - Roasted soya beans are fermented with yeast or fungi such as Aspergillus.
The production of drugs or other pharmaceutical ch
Penicillin, an antibiotic medicine - The fungus Penicillium grown in culture produces the antibiotic as a by-product of its metabolism.
Insulin, a hormone used by diabetic patients whose own production of hormone is not sufficient - Bacteria (E.coli) are genetically modified to carry the human insulin gene, Organisms secrete the insulin protein as they grow.
The production of enzymes or other chemicals for c
Pectinase, used in fruit juice extraction - The fungus A. niger grown in certain conditions produces and secretes pectinase enzyme.
Calcium citrate (used in detergents) - The fungus A. niger produces citric acid as a by-product of its normal metabolism.
Bio-gas fuel production - Methanogenic bacteria, grown on concentrated sewage, respire anaerobically and generate gases that can be used as fuel.
The bioremediation of waste products
Waste water treatment - A variety of bacteria and fungi use organic waste in the water as nutrients and make the waste harmless; for example Fusarium grown on corn steep liquor, a waste product of the corn milling industry.