bioscience week 1 animal cells and tissues

HideShow resource information

Prokaryotic Cells

Lack a nuclear envelope or nucleus

Lack most intracellular organelles

3 distinct areas;

Pilli or flagella

Cell envelope

Plasma membrane

1 of 17

Eukaryotic cells

Cells with a membrane, enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles

X 10 larger and up to 1000 times the volume of prokaryotes

2 of 17

Animal Cells

Cellular metabolism
Catabolism
Anabolism

3 of 17

Cell membrane

Bilipid layer (4-5mm)

Separates cell from surrounding environment

Control point;

Diffusion (facilitated)

Osmosis

Active Uptake

Phagocytosis

Pinocytosis

4 of 17

Cytoplasm

Aqueous material found within cell

Contains;

Nucleus

Organelles

Dissolved solutes (glucose, ions ATP)

5 of 17

Cell Organelles

Nucleus

•Information processing centre of cell

•DNA

•Co-ordinates cells activities

Nucleolus

•Manufactures ribosome subunits

6 of 17

Mitochondria

•Powerhouse of cell

•Chemically ‘burns’ glucose to make ATP (energy) for cell use

•Possesses own DNA

7 of 17

Golgi Apparatus

  • Takes protiens synthesised by endoplasmic reticulum and prepares for use elsewhere
  • adds sugars to proteins
  • sends to: 
    • lysosome, to aid digestion
    • cell membrane
8 of 17

lysomes

Membrane bound sacs containing digestive enzymes

Phagocytosis – worn out organelles and itself (death of cell)

9 of 17

Rough ER

Ribosomes attached

Synthesis & transport proteins

10 of 17

Smooth ER

•NO ribosomes attached

Synthesis & transport of lipids and steroids

11 of 17

Ribosomes

Spherical organelles

20nm

4 strands of RNA

12 of 17

Tissue

  • A group of cells specialised to carry out a particular function

  • Types
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nerve
13 of 17

Epithelial Tissue

•Covering/lining epithelia

Size

–Simple epithelium

–Stratified epithelium

Shape

–Squamous epithelia

–Cuboidal epithelia

–Columnar epithelia

Glandular epithelia

–Exocrine glands

–Endocrine glands

14 of 17

Connective tissue

Contain few cells but large amounts of intercellular material

1.Fluid e.g. Blood

2.Semi solid – loose e.g. adipose tissue or fibrous e.g. tendons/ligaments

3.Solid – protein base e.g. cartilage or mineral base e.g. bone

15 of 17

Muscle

Indivdual cells which are fibres

–Skeletal

– 2 proteins that make up this muscle refract the light differently which causes characteristic striated appearance

–Cardiac

– striations are fainter but muscle fibres are branched which helps the transmission of the heart beat

–Smooth

– muscle fibres show no striation & the cells are spindle shaped

16 of 17

Nerve

•Nerve cells

– Neurons

•2 main parts

– Cell Body & Axon

•Some axons are covered in myelin sheath

17 of 17

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Agriculture resources:

See all Agriculture resources »See all Bioscience resources »