Biology-cells

Biology - cells

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What is in an animal cell

Nucleus - The nucleus has genetic material and controls the activities of the cell.

Mitochondria - Mitochondria is where respiration occurs, respiration releases energy that the cell needs to work.

Ribosomes - Ribosomes is where protein is made

Cytoplasm - Cytoplasm is were most of the chemical reactions happen

Cell membrane - Cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell, it contains enzymes.

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What is in a plant cell

Nucleus - The nucleus has genetic material and controls the activities of the cell.

Mitochondria - Mitochondria is where respiration occurs, respiration releases energy that the cell needs to work.

Ribosomes - Ribosomes is where protein is made

Cytoplasm - Cytoplasm is were most of the chemical reactions happen

Cell membrane - Cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell, it contains enzymes.

Cell Wall - Made of  Cellulose It supports and strengthens the cell.

Vacuole - The Vacuole contains sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts

Chloroplasts - Chloroplasts are where photosynthesis occurs (Makes food for the plant) They contain green substances called chlorophyll. 

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What do cells make up

Cells make up Tissues, Organs & Systems

Cells have structures that are specialized so they can carry out their function.

Similar cells are grouped together to make tissues.

Different tissues work together to make an organ, organs have a particular job to do in the body. E.G the heart pumps blood around the body.

Groups of organs work together to make an organ system, like the digestive system

Finally groups of organs & organ systems work together to make one full organism (a human)

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Specialized Cells part 1

Palisade Leaf Cells - these cells are adapted to to photosynthesis, They are packed with chloroplasts, more of them cramped at the top of the cell for more light, They have a big surface area, There thin shape means you can pack loads of them in a leaf (these cells are grouped together to make the Palisade Layer.

Guard Cells - Guard cells are adapted to open and close pores, They have a special kidney shape to open and close the stomata, When the plant has lots of water they open to allow gas exchange, when they are dry they close to prevent further water loss, Thin outer layer and thick inner layer make it easy to open and close, They are sensitive to light and close at night.


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Specialized cells part 2

Red Blood Cells - Red blood cells are adapted for carrying oxygen, They have a large surface area. they're packed with haemoglobin. They have no nucleus to allow more room fro haemoglobin.

Sperm & Egg Cells - Sperm & egg cells are specialized for reproduction, the egg cell carries female DNA and nourish the developing embryo in the early stages, this cell contains huge food reserves to feed the embryo. When a sperm cell fuses the egg the eggs membrane's state instantly changes its structure to not let anymore sperm cells in. Sperm cells have a long tail and a streamline head for swimming, It also carries the male DNA. Its function is to get the male DNA to the female DNA.  

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Cell Membranes- Diffusion

Cell membranes are very clever because they hold the cell together and at the same time they let stuff in and out.

Substances can move into and out of cells by diffusion and osmosis.

Only very small molecules can diffuse through cell membranes though such as Glucose, amino acids, water and oxygen whilst bigger molecules like starch and proteins cant fit through the membrane. 

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