Biology Unit 2 Continued


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Conservation and Biodiversity

What does information about threats to biodiversity need between countries? what do they need to decide? name two examples of successful international cooperation? what does Rio aim to develop? and? what did they make part of the law? what does it provide guidance to? what does CITES stand for? what is it? whats it designed to increase? what did member coutnries all agrre to make illegal? what does the agrrement help to conserve? how? and making what illegal? such as? whats it also designed to raise? of what? through what? why is interantional cooperation really important?

What does EIA stand for? what is it? such as? what does it estimate? and evaluating? whats identifyed? what is also identified? whats decided? what are they? for example? what are local authroties often under? from who? what do they argue? how do they feel? what do enviromental impact assessments ensure? who are they used by? to decide what?

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shared, conservation methods and implement them together, Rio convention on Biodiversity and CITES Agreement, to develop intrnational startegies ton the conservation of biodiversity and how to use animal and plant resources in a sustainable way, conserving biodiversity is everyones respinsibility, guidance to goverments on how to conserve biodiversity,  convention on international Trade un Endangered Species, agrrement designed to increase inernational cooepration in regualting trade in wild animald and placen specimens, illegal to kill endangered species, conserve species by limting trade through licensing by making it illegal to trade product froms endangered animals like rhino ivory, raise awareness of threats to biodiversity through education, its pointless if its just one country

Enviromental impact assesssment, an assessment of the impact  a developing project have on the eveiroment, buildings or shopping centre, bidoiversity on the project site, how the the development might affect biodiversity,  ways the biodiversity could be conserved, threatened or endangered species  on teh project site and the laws relating to their conservation, planning stipulations, measures that will have to be impleme ted if the project proceeds, relocatingor protectecing endangered species, under presure from conservationists, developments damage the enviroment and dsiturb wildlife . habitats should be left alone, decision makers consdier thee enviromental impact of development projects to decide if and how projects proceed

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Classification Basics

What is classificaiton the act of? based on what? who does it make it easier for? to do what? What is taxonomy? how many classificaiton systems are in use? what do they all invovle? in a what? How many levels of groups used in classificaiton? what are the groups called? what are similiar organisms are first sorted into? called what? give example? similiar organism are then sorted into what? called what? give examples? similiar organisms from that kingdom are then grouped into what? similiar organisms from each phylum are then grouped into what? name all eight and order them? as you move down the heircarchy what are ther more of? at what? but fewrer what? in what? what does the hierarchy end with? these groups only contain what? give examples?

How many kingdoms do you need to know? what about them? name the five kingdoms? give example of prokaryotae? state features? examples of protoctista? features? exampls of fungi and featurs? examples of plantae and features? examples of animalia and features?

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arranging organisms into groups based on similarites and differences, scientists, identify and study them, the study of classification, few, into groups in a taxonomic heirarchy, eight levels of groups, taxonomic groups, sorted into three very large groups called domains, animals plants and fungi are in the eukarya domain, sorted into slightly smaller groups called kingdoms, all animals are in the animal kingdom,phylum, class, domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species, more groups at each lvel but fewer organisms in each group, species, groups that only contain one type of organims, human dog ecoli

five and general charcateristcs or organism in them, prokaryotae (monera) protocista fungi plantae animalia, bacteria-ptrokaryotic unicelluar(single-celled) no nucleus less then 5 um, algae prtozoa- eukaryotic cells usually live in water single clled or simple mutlcielluar organsms, moulds yeats mushrooms- eukaryotic chitin cell wall saproptophic (absorb substances from dead or decaying organisms), mossess ferns flowering plants- eukaryotic multicelluar cell walls made of cellulose can photosynthesise contain chloryphyll authrophoc (produce their own food), nematodes(roundworms) molluscs insects fish reptiles birds mammals- eukaryotic multicelluar no cell walls heterotrophic (consume plants and animals)

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Classification Basics

Whats the nomenclature? whats the one used for classificaiton called? what are all organisms given? in what? that has what? whats the first part of the name? what does it have? whats the second part of the name? what does it begin usuing the binomial system what are humans? what are names always written in? or if handwirtten? what does the binomial system help avoid? give examples?

what is phylogeny the study of? of what? what have all organis dne? from what? meaning? Example- whos in the hominade family? what they have evolved from? what diverged firsT? meaning? what did next? then what? followed by? what does phylogeny tell us?and what?is is it recently that closely related species have diverged? what tree can show the hominade ancestor tree? why are humans closely related to each other? how can you this on the tree diargam? what are more distantly related then? why? what are there branches like? what does classifciaton systems now take into account? when?

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naming systembionomial system, inernationally accepted scientific name, lating, two parts, is the genus name has a capital letter, is the species name and begins with a lower case letter, Homo sapiens, italics, underlined, confusion of common names, 100 different plant species are caled raspberries and one species of buttercup has over 90 common names,

is the study of the evolutionary history of groups of organisms, evolved from shared common ancesrtoes, relatives, great apes and humans, evolved froma  common ancestor, orangutans diverged, evolved to become a differnet species from this common ancestor, gorillas followed by humans by bonobos and chimpanzees, tells us whos related to who and how cloesly related, most recently, phylogenetic tree, closely related as they diverged very recently, branches are close, distantly related as they divereged longer ago so their branches are furher apart, takes into account phylogeny

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Evolution of Classificaiton Systems

What did early classification systems only used what to place ogranisms into groups? which are? gice example? does this method have a problem? what cant scientists always agree on? of what? and what may groups based solely on physcial features may not show? give example? what are classification systems now based on? along with?

what dose the more similiar an organism mean? what do we now use to see how similiar(realated) organism are? name the four? whats molecular evidence? what will more closely related organisms have? what can you compare? give example? what is embryological evidence?whats the anatomical evidence? whats the behavioural evidence?

Give example of new technologies? what can they result in? where can scientists share discoveris? what is continually revised? to take what into account? Example- what were skuns classified? until? so where were they classified?

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Only used observational features, things you can see, wether they lay eggs can fly etc, has  aproblem, the rleative importance of differnt fetures, may not show how related organisms are, sharks and whales look quiet similiar and they both live in the sea but theyre not closely related, oberable features along with other evidence,

The more related they are, a wide range of evidence to se ehow related organisms are, molecular evidence embryological evidence anatomical evidence and behavioral evidence, similiarties of proteins and DNA, more ismiliar moelcules, how DNA is stored the dequence of DNA bases sequence of Amino Acids in proteins, base sequence for human and chimpanze DNA is 94% the same, similiarties and differences in the early stages of an organism devlopment, the similiarites in structure and dunction of differnet body parts, similairites in behaviour and social organisation of organisms,

DNA techniques better microscopes, can result in new discovers being made, meetings or scieiftic journals, how organisms are classififed, take into account of any new findings that scientists discover, family mustelidae, moelcular evidence revealed their DNA sequence was significantly differnet of hother members in the family, relcassified into the family mephitidae

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Evolution of Classificaiton Systems

are the three domain classificiation systsme mentioned on the other card new or old? why was it suggested? in the older system what were the largest group? where all organisms palced? what was propeosed in 1990? what does this sytem have? what are they? what are they above? in what? in the three domain system where are ognaims with nucelus placed? what does this include? what do organisms in the prokaryotae kingdom have? what are they seperated into? what happens to the lower hierarchy? name them?

why was the three domain system proposde? mainly what evidence? give example? why? what two pieces of evidence? what did the molecular evidence show? what is RNA polymerae needed for? what has similiar histones to what? what are histones? what doesnt? what was the cell membrane evidence?the devleopment and composition of what was also different? what do most scientists now agree? and what are more clsoely realted to what? rather than? what does the three domain system reflect?

What do dichotomous keys provide? based on? give examples? what do they consist of? eahc with what? what does eaach answer lead to? until what? what could you be asked to do in the exam?

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relativly new, new evidence, the five kingdoms, placed into one of these groups, the three domain system was proposed, three domains, large superkingdoms, kingdoms in the taxhamonic hierarchy, domain Ekarya, four of the five, contains unicellaur organisms without a ncuelus, two domians, archaea and bacteria, stays the same, kingdom phylum class order family genus species

 new evidience, mainly molecular, prokaryotae were reclassified into two domains because new evidecne showed large differences between the archae and bacteria,molecular evidence and cell membrane evidnece, enzyme RNA polymerase is different in Bacteria and Archaea, needed to make RNA, Archawa have similiar histones to Eukarya, proteins that bind to DNA, but not bacteria, the bonds of the lipids in the cell membranes of Bacteria and Archaea are differnet, flagellaea, Archaea and Bacteria evolved seperatly and that Archaea are more clsoely related to Eukarya than Bacteria, how differne the archaea and Bacteria are

Provide a way to identify organisms, observable features, colour types of leaves, series of questions, two possible answers, either the name or another question, the organism is identified, to use a dichtomous key to identify some organisms

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What is variation? what is every individual organism? what are clones? what do they even show? where can it occur? what is variation within a species called? give example? what can they varry in? whats the variation between bewteen species? what is the lightest species of bird? what does it weigh? what is the heaviest bird? what can it weigh?

What is continous variation? what are no distinct? give example? not just ___ or ___? examples in animals? examples in plamts? examples in micrpoorganisms?

What is discontinous variation? what does each individual fall into? what are there none of? examples in animals? exam,ples in plants? examples in microorganisms?

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The differences that exist between indivudals? unique? identical twins, show some variation, within species and between species, intraspecific variation, individual european robins weigh between 16g to 22 g also variation in length wingspan colour and beak size, interspecfic variation, bee hummingbird, 1.6g and the heaviest is the ostrich, 160 kg,

Is when indivuals in a population vary withing a range, there are no distinct cateogries, humans can be any jeight withing a rang of 139-185, tall or short, milk yield- cows can produce any volume of milk within a rang and Mass- humans can be any mass within a range, Number of leaves- trees can have any number of leaves withing a range and Mass- the mass of seeds froma  flower head can be within a range, width- the width of e coli varies and length- of flaggelum can vary

Is when there are two or more distinct categories, falls into any of these categories, no intermdeiates, sex- humans are male or female and blood group- humans can be A B AB or O, Colour- courgettes are yellow dark green or light green and Seed shape- some pea plants have smooth seeds and some wrinkled,Antibitoic resistant- they are resistant or not and pigm ent production- some types of bacteria can produce a coloured pigment some cant

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What two things can variation be cayused by? can it be caused by both? what do different species have? what do individuals of the same spcies have?  but differnent what? called what? what do the genes and alleles an organism has make up? what does the difference in genotype result in? in what? meaning? give an example of variation only caused by genetic factors? and what? what do you inherit genes? what does this mean?

What can variation also be caused by? give examples? what can characterists controlled by eneviromental factors change over? give example of variation cuased only by enviromental facotrs?

What do genetic factors determine? what can enviromentals factors influence? give two examples? what do genes determine height wise? give example? however what enviromental facotors affect how tall it actually grows? what determines if a microorganism can grow a falggelum? why will only some start to grow? give example?

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Genetic factors or enviromental facotrs or both, different genes, same genes but differnt versions, alleles, genotype, variation in phenotype, the characteritics dispalyed by an organism, blood group in humans and antibitoic resitance in bacteria, from your parents, is inherited,

differneces in the enviroment, climate food lifestyle, can change over an organisms life, accnets or pierced ears

born with, can influence how some characteristics develop, genes determine how tall an organism can grow, tall parents have tall children, diet or nutreitn avaibility affect how tall an organism acutally gorws, genes some will only start to grow them in certain envriometns, metal ions are present,

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What three things does being adapted to an enviroment mean? what are these features called? what three things can they be? what do adaptations develop because of? by what? what individuals in each generation are more likely to survive and reproduce? what do they pass to their offspring? what are individuals  less well adapted more likely to do?

What are behavioural adaptations? give two examples? why do possums play dead? to escape? what does this increase? what does this make sure they attarct? increasin what?

What are physiological adaptations? what does it increase? give two examples? how do they hibernate? what does this mean? over what season?what does this conserve? so what dont they need to do? whys that good? what does it increase? what do these kill? where? whats there less? increasing?

What are anatmoical (structural) adaptations? what does it increase? give two examples? what does its streamlined shape make easier? so whats easier? increasin what? what does there blubber keep them? what does this increase? where?

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an irganism has features that increse chances of survival reporudction and chance of offspring reproducing successfully, adaptations, behavioural physiological and anatomical, evololution by natural selection, best adapted individualas, offspring, die before reproducing,

ways an organisms acts, chacne of survival, possums sometimes play dead and scorpions dnace before mating, if theyre being threatened by a predator, escape attack, chance of survival, this makes sure they attract a mate of the same species, liklihood of successful mating

processes inside an organisms body, survival, brown bears hibernate and some bacteria produce antibiotics, lower metabolism, all chmeical reactions taking place in their body, winter, conserves enegry, food when its scarce in winter, chance of survival, these kill other species of bacteria in the area, less compeition, likely to survive,

Structural features of an orgabnism body, chance of survival, otters have a streamlined shape and whales have a thick  layer of blubber (fat), glide through water, catch prey and escape predators, chance of survival, keeps them warm, chacne of survival, where food is found in the cold sea

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The Theory of Evolution

What do scientists use theories to attempt? who did this? How many key observations did darwin make? of what? What observation did he make of organisms offspring? about variation? charactericts and inheritance? indiduvlas that are best adapted? is natural selection the only process by which evoloution occurs? What was darwins theory on? what did it exaplin?

What do individuals within a population show? in their? which is? what three things create a struggle for survival? what are better adapations? give example? what do they give organisms a better chacne of? over time what increases? whatd do they have? over generations what does this lead to? why?

Why was there opposition to darwins theory? over time whats happened? why? what hasnt been found? what does eveidence increase? the more eveidence the more what?

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to attempt to exaplin their observations, charles darwin, four, about the world around him, organisms produce more organisms than survive, theres variation in the charcteristics of members of the same species, some of these charcteristics cna be assed on from one genrtation to the next and indicuals best adapted to their enviroment are more likely to survive, is one process, of evoloution by natural selection to explain his observations

Show variation in their phenotypes, their charcateristics, predation disease and compeition, characteristics that give a sleective advantage, being able to run away from predators faster, are mor elikely to survive reproduce and pass one their advantegous adaptions to their offsrping, the number of indivudalas with the advantageous adapations increase, evoloution, as the favourable adaptiosn become more common in the population

Conflcited with religous beliefs, increasingly acceptd, more evdience  has been found to support it, and none to discredit it, increases scientists confidence ina  theory, the more chance of soemthing becoming an accepted scientific explanation

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The Theory of Evolution

What is specification? what is a species defined as? that can do what? what can species exist as? for example? when does specification happen?whats the example of how evolouton can lead to speicifciaton? What did Darwin observe? where? what are the galapogos islands? what was each species of finch unique to? were they similiar? what differed?what were they adapted to? Darwin Theorised- what did all the spcies of finch have? what did different populations become? where? what did each population evolve? to what? what did the populations evolve to become? what couldnt they do? what had they evolved into?

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The formation of a new species,as a group of similiar ogrnaisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring, as one or more populations, populations of the american black bear in parts of USA and Canada, when populations of the same speices evolve to become so differnt that they cant breed with one another to produce fertule offspring, 14 species of finch on the galapgos islands, a grorup of islands in the pacific ocean, each specie of finch unique to a singel islands, they were similair, size shape and beak dffiered, to the food sources found on their island, had a common ancestor, isolated on differnt islands, evoved adaptions to their enviroment, to become so differnt that they could no longer breed to produce fertile offspring, they had evolved into seperate species

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The Theory of Evolution

What are the three pieces of evidence that support evolution? what are fossils? preserved where? what are fossils arranged in? what can be observed that provide of evolution? what does the fossil record of the horse show?

What does the theory of evolution suggest? what do closely realted species do? meaning? did it happen long ago or recently? what is evolution caused by? where? what shouild organims that have diverged away from each other more recently have? why? who have found this? Example- name the three species that evolved from a common ancestor? which diverged longest ago? which diverged recently? which have similiar DNA base sequence percentage wise? give percentages?

Other than DNA where can similiarites be? what can scientists comapre? where? and compare whaT? what do organisms that diverged away from each other more recently have? why?

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fossil record evidence DNa evidence and molecular evidence, are remains of organisms preserved in rocks, chronological order, gradual changes, shows a gradyak change in its characteristicsincluding incresiing size and hoof development

that all organisms have evolved from shared common ancestors, diverged, evolved to become different species, more recently, gradual changes in the base sequence of organisms DNA, should have more similiar DNA, as less time has passed for changes in the DNA sequence to occur, scientists, humans chimps mice, humans and mice, humans and chimps, humans and chimps 94%, human and mice DNA is 85% the same

Other molecules, the sequence of amino acids in proteins, anitbodies, have ore similiar molecules, as less time has passed for changes in proteins and other molecules to occur

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The Theory of Evolution

what are antibiotics? what do they kill? or inhibit? what have scientists observed? in what species? give example? whta is it a strain of? whats it resistant to?called? what can the evolution of antibiotic resistance be exmpalined by? what is their in a population of bacteria? what  makes some bacteria naturally resistrant to an antibitoic? if its exposede to an antibitoitc which ones will survive? what will be passed on to the next generation? what has happened?

when are infections harder to treat? such as? what are some speices of bacteria resistant to? what do docots have to figure out? what could of happened in that time? when is there a real problem? whats developed to prevent this? what two things does this require? will one antibiotic gurantee all bacteria is killed?

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Are drugs, kill or inhibt the growth of bacteria, the evolution of anitibotic resistance in many species of bacteria, MRSA (methicilliin-resistant staphylococcus aureus), a strain(type) of bacteria, thats resistant to the antibitoic methicillin, natural selection, variation, genetic mutatuions, only the indiduvlas with resistance will survive to reproduce, the alleles, and so the population will evolve to become resistant to the drug

caused by anti-bitotic resistant bacteria, MRSA, a lot of differnet anitbitoitcs, it takes doctors a while to figure out which anitibitoics iwll get rid of the infection, pateitn could become ill or die,the point where bacterium have developed resistance to all known antibitoics, new anitbiotics, time and money, wont always kill all of them

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The Theory of Evolution

what are pesticides? what do they do? like? what have scientists observed? in what? give example?what have they evolved? what pesticide? what do pollen beetles do? what do they resist to? what can the evolution of pesticide resistance be expalined by? what is thre in populations of insects? what makes some insects naturall resistant to a pesticide? if the population of insects is ecposed to that pesticide what will survive? whats passed on to the next generation? what will have happend?

what are the implications of pesticde similiar to? what sort of crop infesetation is harder to control?who does it take a while to figure out? what do they have to figure out? what could have happend? what do they have to do if the insects are resistant to specific pesticides?what do they do? what could also be killed?name a disease carryig insect? if they become pesticide-resistant what could increase? what could a population of insects evolve to resist? how do we prevent this? what does this take?

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are chemicals, that kill petss, insetcs that damage crops, evolution of pesticide resistance in many species of insect, some opulations of mosquitoe have evolved resistance to the pesiticide DDT, whcih damage the crop oilsee ****, are resistant to yrethroid pesticides, natural selection, variation, gentic mutations, only the indivudals with resistance will survive to reproduce, allelles which cause the pesticde resistance, so the population will evolve to become more resistant to the chemical,

antibittic resistance, harder to control, to lost of differnret pesticdes, farmers, to figure out which pesticide will kill the insect , all the crop could be destroyed, might have to use a broader pesticide, those that kill a range of isnects, which could kill beneficial insects, mosquito, the spread of disease, could evolve resitacne to all pesticides in use, new pesticides, time and money

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What percent does water make up a cells contents? what does it have? what two places? what is water? in what? give two examples? what is water also? what dose this mean? where do most biological reactions take place? making water what? what does water transport? what makes it easy? to transport all sorts of materials? give examles of substances? around what? what does water hel with? what does it carry away? when? from where? what does this do? lowering?

What is a molecule of water made up of? what are they joined by? what charge are the hydrogen electrons? what are they pulled towards? whats charge is the other side of the hydrogen atom? what charge are the unshared electrons on the oxygena tom? what charge do they give the oxygen atom? what do both these charges make water molecules? what do the negatively charged oxygena toms attract? whats the attraction called?what does it give water?

What does the structure of water molecules give it? what do they explain? what is specific heat capacity? how much energy can hydrogen bonds between water moelvules absorb? what does water have then? meaning? whys is this useful for living organisms? allowing?

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80, importnat functions, inside and outside cells, reactant in loads of important chemical reactions, photosyntheis and hydrolysis reactions, solvent, some subatcnes dissolve in it, take place ina  soloution, waters essential, substances, liquid and a solvent, all sorts of materials, glucose and oxygen, around plants and animals, temperature control, heat energy when it evaportates from a surface, cools the surface and helps to lower the temperature,

One atom of oxygen joined to two hydorgen atoms, shared electrons, negative, pulled twoards the oxygen atom, slight positive charge, negative, slight negative charge, olar, attract the positivly charged hdyriogen atoms of other water moelcules, hydrogen bonding, useful properties

Properties, functions, is the enrgy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree, absorb a lot of energy, high specific heat capacity, it takes a lot of energy to heat it up, it stops rapid temp changes, their temp to keep fairly stable

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How much enery is required to break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules? when we say energy what do we mean? what does water have high of then? meaning? why is this useful for living organisms?

What is cohesion? between what? wahat are water molevules very? meaning? why?what does this help water do? making it great for what?

What are a lot of important substances in biological reactions?giive example? what does this mean? give example? seeing as water is polar what dose the postiie end of a wtaer molcule attrac? and the what to what? what does the ion become? in other words? so waters what makes it a useful what for what?

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A lot, heat, high latent heat of evaporation, a lot of energy is used up when water evaprotes, because it menas waters great for cooling things,

is the attraction between molecules, two water molecules, are very cohesive, they tend to stick togetgher, theyre polar, flow making it great for transporting substances,

ionic, salt, one positivly charged atom or molecule and one negativly charged atom or molecule, salt is made from a positive sodium ion and a negative chloride ion, the positve end of a water molecule will be attracted to the negative ion, negative end of a wtaer molveule will be attracted to the postiive ion, totally surround by water molecuules, theyl dissolve, polarity makes it a useful solvent for other polar molecules

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