Biology: Unit 2 - Biotechnology and Gene Technologies

Biology A2

OCR

F215

Biotechnology and Gene Technologies

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Clones in Nature

  • What is a clone? Give examples of some clones in nature.

Cloning is a natural part of growth but can also be achieved artificially:

  • Cuttings
  • Graftings
  • Micropropagation by Callus Tissue Culture

Basis of asexual reproduction in eukaryotes is mitosis.

Advantages of asexual reproduction:

  • Rapid
  • Can be completed if sexual reproduction fails
  • All offspring have genetic information to enable them to survive

Disadvantage: No genetic variation - disease

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Natural Vegetative Propogation in Plants

Vegetative Propogation = The production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms. These offspring contain the same genetic info as the parent and so are clones of the parent.

Asexual reproduction in English Elm (Ulmus procera) = During stress such as disease or burning, formation of root suckers or basal sprouts occurs from meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground where least damage occurs. The suckers grow in a circle around the tree called the clonal patch.

English Elm Disease = fungal infection cause by bark beetle. There is no genetic variation within the cloned population so natural selection cannot occur.

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