Biology unit 2

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Investigating variation

Sampling

bias

Chance

Random sampling

Using a large sample size

Analyse

Environmental influence

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Types of variation

Bar charts -  categoric data - genetic factors

Line graphs - normal distribution curve - continous data - environmental influence

Mean

Standard deviation

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DNA

Structure of DNA

NUCLEOTIDE

Phosphate (backbone upright)

Deoxyribose sugar (backbone upright)

Organic base

Always goes with T

Greally goes with C

Complementary shape ( single + double ring)

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Triplet Code

Minimum of three bases coded for each amino acid

64 possible codes

20 amino acids

Introns - multiple repeats

Degenerate - more than one code

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Chromosomes

Eukaryotic - linear dna molecules that occur in association with proteins

Visible during cell division

Homologus

Occurs in pairs

Maternal and paternal

Pair always determines the same characteristics

ALLELE - DIFFERENT VERSION OF A GENE

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Genetic diversity

Diversity

Selective Breeding + ethics

Founder effect

Bottleneck effect

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Variety of Life

Haemoglobin

4 polypeptide chains  - each associated with a haem group containing a ferrous ion

Readily associates with oxygen in the lungs

Readily dissociates with oxygen in the tissues

Affinity - high - take up easy, let go not so easily

Affinity - low - take up less easily , more readily releases

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Dissociation Curves

Oxygen partial pressure

Effects of CO2 concentration

Tissues - high - reduces oxygen affinity

Lungs - low

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Polysaccharides

PLANTS

STARCH

CELLULOSE

ANIMALS

GLYCOGEN

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Plant cell structure

LEAF PALISADE

CHLOROPLASTS

CELL WALL

SPECIALISED

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