Biology Unit 2

These flash cards have the important information that covers Cells.

Apologies for any spelling mistakes!

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  • Created by: alex
  • Created on: 03-04-12 10:51

Plant Cells


  • Cell Memebrane - a bag that keeps everything inside of it. Mainly contains Cytoplasm (Water based mixture which is full of enzymes.)


  • A Nucleus - where the DNA is kept. Tells a cell what to do (when to divide, multiply etc.)


  • Cell Wall - made of cellulose which surrounds the cell membrane giving it strength and structure.


  • Mitochondria - turns food into energy.


  • Chloroplasts - Chlorophyll and harness light energy.


  • Permenant Vacuole - a space within the cell. Usually full of watery sap which just keeps the cell firm.
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Leaf Cells

Specifcally envolved to trap as much light as possible for photosynthesis.

  • Regularly shaped


  • Packed closely together - forming a continuous layer.


  • Makes the efficent at absorbing light!


  • Jam-packed with chloroplasts enables them to trap plenty of light. 
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Root Hair Cells


    • Don't contain any chloroplasts!


    • Have long, thin wall finger-like projections which grow outwards which stretch out into the soil absorbing mineral ions and water.
    • Have a realitively large surface area - can absorb as much as possible.
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Sperm Cells

Male sex cell who's job it is to fertilise an egg!

  • Tadpole-like shape with a long whip-like tail.


  • It's head is full of DNA  - genetic instructions to help make a baby.


  • The head also carries a sack of potent enzymes which enables the cell to break through the egg cell membrane during fertillisation.


  • Under the head there is Mitochondria which provides all the necessary energy.
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Red Blood Cells

  • Crammed full of the protein, Haemoglobin.


  • Transports Oxygen around the body where it's needed.


  • Squashed doughnut shaped - giving them a large suface area.


  • Very thin cell membrane and have no nucleus.
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The movement of molecules and gases

  • Gas particles or dissolved molecules in solution spread.
  • Move from a region where there is a high concentration to a low concentration.
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The movement of water across a cell membrane.

  • a concentration gradient is needed.


  • Water is going to move through the permeable membrane from a less concentrated or more dilute soloution to a more concentrated or less dilute solution.
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