Biology Unit 2

These flash cards have the important information that covers Cells.

Apologies for any spelling mistakes!

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  • Created by: alex
  • Created on: 03-04-12 10:51

Plant Cells

 

  • Cell Memebrane - a bag that keeps everything inside of it. Mainly contains Cytoplasm (Water based mixture which is full of enzymes.)

 

  • A Nucleus - where the DNA is kept. Tells a cell what to do (when to divide, multiply etc.)

 

  • Cell Wall - made of cellulose which surrounds the cell membrane giving it strength and structure.

 

  • Mitochondria - turns food into energy.

 

  • Chloroplasts - Chlorophyll and harness light energy.

 

  • Permenant Vacuole - a space within the cell. Usually full of watery sap which just keeps the cell firm.
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Leaf Cells

Specifcally envolved to trap as much light as possible for photosynthesis.

  • Regularly shaped

 

  • Packed closely together - forming a continuous layer.

 

  • Makes the efficent at absorbing light!

 

  • Jam-packed with chloroplasts enables them to trap plenty of light. 
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Root Hair Cells

  

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    • Don't contain any chloroplasts!

 

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    • Have long, thin wall finger-like projections which grow outwards which stretch out into the soil absorbing mineral ions and water.
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    • Have a realitively large surface area - can absorb as much as possible.
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Sperm Cells

Male sex cell who's job it is to fertilise an egg!

  • Tadpole-like shape with a long whip-like tail.

 

  • It's head is full of DNA  - genetic instructions to help make a baby.

 

  • The head also carries a sack of potent enzymes which enables the cell to break through the egg cell membrane during fertillisation.

 

  • Under the head there is Mitochondria which provides all the necessary energy.
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Red Blood Cells

  • Crammed full of the protein, Haemoglobin.

 

  • Transports Oxygen around the body where it's needed.

 

  • Squashed doughnut shaped - giving them a large suface area.

 

  • Very thin cell membrane and have no nucleus.
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Diffusion

The movement of molecules and gases

  • Gas particles or dissolved molecules in solution spread.
  • Move from a region where there is a high concentration to a low concentration.
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Osmosis

The movement of water across a cell membrane.

  • a concentration gradient is needed.

 

  • Water is going to move through the permeable membrane from a less concentrated or more dilute soloution to a more concentrated or less dilute solution.
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