-In some BACTERIA
-These look like EUKARYOTIC UNDULIPODIA (but their internal structure is very different.
-They are made of a SPIRAL PROTEIN called FLAGELLIN attached by a HOOK to a PROTEIN DISC at the BASE.
-Using energy from ATP the DISC ROTATES, spinning the flagellum.
-They are MEMBRANE BOUND SACS FOUND IN CELLS.
-They are used to carry many different substances around cells.
-In PLANT CELLS, the large cell vacuole maintains cell STABILITY.
-It is filled with WATER and SOLUTES so that it pushes the CYTOPLASM against the CELL WALL, making the cell TURGID.
-If all the plant cells are TURGID, this helps SUPPORT the plant.
Plant cell walls
-These are on the OUTSIDE of the plant cell PLASMA MEMBRANES.
-They are made of CELLULOSE (A CABOHYDRATE POLYMER made up of GLUCOSE subunits).
-The CELLULOSE forms a SIEVE- like NETWORK of STRANDS that make the wall strong.
-It is held rigid by the PRESSURE of the fluid inside the cell (TURGOR pressure), it SUPPORTS the cell and so helps SUPPORT the whole plant.