BIOLOGY UNIT 1

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Flagella

-In some BACTERIA

-These look like EUKARYOTIC UNDULIPODIA (but their internal structure is very different.

-They are made of a SPIRAL PROTEIN called FLAGELLIN attached by a HOOK to a PROTEIN DISC at the BASE.

-Using energy from ATP the DISC ROTATES, spinning the flagellum. 

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Vesicles

-They are MEMBRANE BOUND SACS FOUND IN CELLS. 

-They are used to carry many different substances around cells.

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Vacuoles

-In PLANT CELLS, the large cell vacuole maintains cell STABILITY.

-It is filled with WATER and SOLUTES so that it pushes the CYTOPLASM against the CELL WALL, making the cell TURGID. 

-If all the plant cells are TURGID, this helps SUPPORT the plant.

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Plant cell walls

-These are on the OUTSIDE of the plant cell PLASMA MEMBRANES.

-They are made of CELLULOSE (A CABOHYDRATE POLYMER made up of GLUCOSE subunits).

-The CELLULOSE forms a SIEVE- like NETWORK of STRANDS that make the wall strong.

-It is held rigid by the PRESSURE of the fluid inside the cell (TURGOR pressure), it SUPPORTS the cell and so helps SUPPORT the whole plant.

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