Biology UNIT 1

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Division of labour

1)  The synthesis of a protein illustrates division of labour within a cell.

2)  Instructions to make hormone are made in NUCLEUS.

3)  The specific instruction is a known as a GENE for that PROTEIN

4)  A GENE is on a CHROMOSOME 

5)  The NUCLEUS copies the instructions in the DNA into a molecule called mRNA

6)  This mRNA molecule leaves the NUCLEUS via a NUCLEAR PORE and attaches to a RIBOSOME (which in this case is attached to ER).

7)  The ribosome reads the instructions and uses it to assemble the HORMONE (protein)

8)  The assembled protein is pinched off of in a VESICLE and transported to the GOLGI APPARATUS.

9)  The GOLGI APPARTUS modifies the protein and packages it into a vesicle to be transported. 

10)  The VESICLE (packaged protein) is then transported to the cell surface membrane and to be SECRETED by the cell. 

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Eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotic means having a TRUE NUCLEUS.

All organisms except prokaryotes have this cell structure.

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Eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotic means having a TRUE NUCLEUS.

All organisms except prokaryotes have this cell structure.

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Prokaryotes

They only have one membrane (THE CELL SURFACE MEMBRANE).

They are surrounded by a CELL WALL made up of PEPTIDOGLYCAN

Outside cell there is a slippery protective layer called a CAPSULE.

Single loop of DNA (circular chromosome) rather than linear chromosomes that eukaryotic cells have.

There is no NUCLEAR EVELOPE - The DNA lies in the NUCLEOID.

ATP production takes place in MESOSOMES.

Some prokaryotic cells have FLAGELLA 

Many prokaryotic cells have hair like APPENDAGES known as PILI.

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Prokaryotes- Disease

-Known because of the diseases they cause.

-Some strains of bacteria are resistant to antibiotics 

-These resistant strains can cause problems because the resistance is coded on plasmid DNA. Bacteria share plasmids with each other, so they can pass resistance between cells.

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Prokaryotes- that help

-The food industry uses bacterial species for making cheese and yoghurt.

-Skin is covered with a 'normal flora' of  bacteria. These help prevent harmful microorganisms getting into the body.

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