Biology Unit2


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  • Created by: Jamie
  • Created on: 17-01-12 19:48


What does the structure of water molecules give it? what do these help to explain?

What is specific heat capactity? how much by what temp? can hydrogen bonds between water molecules absorb a lot or little energy? so what has a high what agian? meaning? What is this useful for? why? allowing what?

Does it take a lot or little energy to break the hydrogen bons between water molecules? what is the energy really? what does this mean water has high of? meaing? whats this useful for? why?

What is cohesion? example? are water molecules cohesive? how? why do they stick together? what does this help? making it great for what?

What are a lot of important substances in biological reactions? give example? what does this mean? how is salt? seeing as water is polar what end of the ion will the positive end of a water molecule be attarcted to? where will the negative end of the water molecule be attarcted to? what does this mean the ion will be surrouned by? whats this in other words? so what does waters polarity make it a useful as?

Draw the posotive and negative ion?

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Some useful properties, many of its functions

Is the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degreee, a lot of energy, has a high specific heat capacity, it takes a lot of energy to heat it up, living organisms as it stops rapid temperature changes allowing them to keep their temperature fairly stable

it takes a lot of energy, heat, high latent heat of evaporation, a lot of energy is used up when water evaportes, living organisms because it means waters great for cooling things

Is the attraction between molecules of the same type, two water molecules, very cohesive as they tend to stick together because theyre polar, helps water to flow, making it great for transproting substances

Ionic, salt, theyre made from one positvly charged atom or molecule and one negatvely charged atom or molecule , salt is made from a postive sodium ion and a nagtive chloride ion, positive end of a water molecule will be attracted to the negative ion and the negetive end of the water molecule will be attartced to the positve ion, they will totally surround by water molecules, they will dissolve, it a useful solvent for other polar molecules

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When is a dipeptide formed? when is a polypeptide formed? What are proteins made up of?

What do all amino acids have? What two things does every carbon atom have attached? what are their chemical signs? whats the difference between different amino acids? Draw the structure of an Amino acid? Draw the structure of Glycine? whats glycine?

What are amino acids linked togetehr by? to form what? what is released during the reaction? what does the reverse of this reaction do? to break waht? whats this reaction called? draw the formula for dipeptide?

Describe the size of proteins? what are they like? how do you describe their structure? how many levels? name them?

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When two amino acids join togtehr, more than two amino acids join together, of one or more polypeitde

The same general structure, a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2), Is the variable group they contain, is the smallest amino acid 

Peptide bonds, dipeptides and polypeptides, a molecule of water, add a molecule of water to braek the peptide bond, hydrolysis reaction

Big and complicated proteins, in four levels, primary secondary tertiary and quaternary

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Whats the primary structure a sequence of in the polypeitde chain?

at the secondary structure what doesnt the polypetide remain like? what forms between the amino acids? what does this make it automatically become? into what?  or? what is this?

At the tertiarty what happens to the coiled or folded chain of amino acids? more of what form where? for proteins made form a single polypetide chain what does the teriary structure finally form?

what are some proteins made of? held toegterh by what? what is the qaternary structure? give an example? is made of how many? how? for proteins made from more than one polypeitde chain whats is the quaternary structure?

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Amino acids

Remain flat and straight, hydrogen bonds, this makes it coil into an alpha helix or fold into a beta pleated sheet, this is the secondary structure

Is often coiled or folded further, more bonds form between different parts of the polypetide chain, this is their final 3d structure

Several different polypetide chains, by bonds, is the way these polypetide chains are assembled together, haemglobin, four polypetide chains, bonded together, is the proteins final 3d structure

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What are the four structural levels of a protein heald together by?

What is the primary structure held togetehr by? between what?

What is the secondary structure held together by? which form between? what does these bonds create? is the hydrogen bond weak or strong?

How many kinds of bonds is the tertairy structure affected by? name them? describe ionic interactions? between what? what happens when two molecules of the amino acid cysteine come close together? forming waht? Whats hydrophobic mean? what happens when hydrophobic groups are close together in the protein? what does this mean for hydrophiliic? what does this affect?

whats ths the quaternary structure determined by? because of thsi what can it be influenced by?

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By differnt kinds of bonds

By the peptide bonds between amino acids

Held togetehr by hydrogen bonds that form between nearby amino acids, create the alpha helix chains or beta pleated sheets, weak

4 differnet kinds, ionic interactions disulfide bonds hydrophobc and hydrophlic interactions and hydrogen bonds, these are weak interactions between negative and positive charges on differnt parts of the molecule, the sulfur atom in one cysteine bonds to the sulfur in the other cysteine forming a disulfide bond, repels water, they tend to clump together which means hydrohplici groups are more likely to be pushed to the outisde, it affects how the protein folds up into its final structure

Tertiary structyure of the individual polypetide chains being bonded togetehr, it can be influend by all the bonds mentioned at the other levels

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What are the two examples of how prtoeins are adapted for their function?

What is collagen? what does it mean if its fibrous? where do they tend to be found? example? what does it form in animals? what does it need to be then? how many polypetide chains is made of? how do they appear? to form a strong what? how are the chains interlinked? what can bing to the triple helix? to incresae what?

Whats haemoglobin? what shape are globular proteins? what are they also? theyre soluable so what are they easily transprot in? with what sort of heam group? what does it bind to? carrying it where? whats its structure like? what does this mean for hydrophilic and hydrophibc side chains? What does this make haemoglobin in water? which makes it good for for what?

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Collagen and Haemoglobin

Is a fibrous protein, tough and rope-shaped, in connective tissues like tendons, supportive tissues in animals, it needs to be strong, three polypeptide chains that are tightly coiled into a strong triple helix, interlinked by covalent bonds, minerals to increase its rigidity

Is a globular protein, they are round and compact, fluids, iron-containing, binds to oxygen carrying it around the body, is curled up so that the hydrophilic side chaons are on the outside of the molecule and hydrophobic side chains face inwards, soluable, transprot in the blood

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Descibe the size of most carbohydrates?Describe them? what are they composed of? give an example of a carbohydrate? give an example of the long chains its composed of? what are single monosaccharides also called? glucose is a monosaccharide with how many atoms in each molecule? what are these atoms? what are the two forms of glucose? draw alpha glucose molecule? draw beta glucose molecule? whats the differnece in structure? what is glucose structure related to? whats its function? what does its structure make it? so it can do what? what does its chemical bonds contain?

What are monosaccharides joined together by? what happens during synthesis? what does it release? whats the reverose of this synthesis?whats this like?  what molecule reacts with what bond? doing what? when is a disaccharide formed? two alpha molecules are joined together by what bond? to form what? draw it? when is a polysaccharide formed? what are lots of alpha glucose molecules joined together by? to form what? draw it?

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large, complex molecules, long chains of monosaccharides, starch, glucose, carbohydrates, six carbon atoms, alpha and beta, wether the hydrogen is above or below the plane, function, as the main energy source in animals and plants, soluable so it can easily transported, lots of energy

Glycosidic bonds, a hydrogen atom on one monosacchride bonds to a hydroxyl (OH) group on the other, a molecule of water, hydrolysis, just like the polypeptides in proteins, water reacts with the glycosidic bond, breaking it apart, when two monosaccharides join together, glycosidix bond to form maltose, when more than two monosacchaides join together, glycosidix bonds to form amylose

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What are the three polysaccharides you need to know about the relationship between the structure and function?

What is starchs function? where do cells get energy from?what do plants store excess glucose as? what does a plant do when it needs more glucose for energy? what is starch a mixture of? what are they? describe amylose? of what? what do the angles of the glycosidic bonds give it? like what? what does it make it? whats it good for then? why? Describe amylopectin? of what? what does its side branches allow? to get at what easily? what does this mean? What is starch in water? what doesnt it cause? what would that make it do? what does this make it good for? draw amylose and amylopectin?

Whats glycogen function? where do animal cells get energy? what do they store excess glucose as? whats this another of? whats its structure similiar to? excpept what? what does more branches mean? whats this important for? whats it also very? whats it good for then? draw glycogen?

Whats cellulose? whats cellulose made of? of what? what are the bonds between the sugars like? what are the cellulose chains like then? what are the cellyose chains linked together by? to form what? called what? what do the strong fibres mean? example? draw cellulose

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The main energy stroage materials in plants, glucose, starch, it breaks down starch to release the glucose, two polysacchrides of alpha glucose, amylose and amylopectin, a long unbranched chain of alpha glucose, a coiled structure, like a cylinder,makes it compact, its really good for storage because you can fit more in to a small space, a long branched chain of alpha glucose,allow the enzymes that break down the molecule to get at the glycosidic bonds esily, this means glucose can be realeased quickly, insoluable, it doesnt cause water to enter cells by osmosis, make it swell, good for storage

The main energy storage material in animals, from glucose, but animals store excess glucose as glycogen, another polysaccharide of alpha glucose, amylopectin, it has loads more side branches coming of it, that sotred glucose can be released quickly, important for energy release in animals, compact molecule, so its good for storage

the major component of cell walls in plants, made of long unbranched chains of beta glucose, straight, straight, hydrogen bonds,strong fibres called microfibrils, cellulose provides structural support for cells e..g cell walls

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Whats trigylcerides a kind of? Whats triglyceride made of? how many molecules? with what attached to it? how many? what do fatty acid molecules have? made of what? what are hydrocarbons? What are the tails? What do the tails make them in water? what do all fatty acids consist of? what varies? draw the structure of trigylercide? draw the chemical structure of triglyceride?

What arent the lipids in cell memberanes? what are they? what are they similiar to? whats the difference? what is the phospahte gorup? meaning? whats it attarcted to then? so what is the phosphate part of the pholipid molecule attracted to? whast the term? whats the rest of the phospholipid? what part is this? draw the structure of a phospholipid?

What is cholestoral a type of? wheres it often found? whats it used to make? what structure does it have? attacted to what? what does the hydrocarbon ring have attacthed to it? what does it make choleserol? whats the structure of cholesterol?

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Lipid, one molecules of glycerol, with three fatty acids attacthed to it, long tails made of hydrocarbons, carbon chains with hydrogen atoms branching of, hydrophovic (water repelling), insoluble, of the same basic structure, hydrocarbon tail,

Triglycerides, phospholipids, triglycerides except one of the faty acid molecules is repalced by a phosphate group, ionised (electrically charged), attarct water molecules, water, hydrophilic, the fatty acid tail is hydrophobic,

lipid, found in cell membranes, steroids, hydrocarbon ring attacthed to a hydrocarbon tail, a polar hydroxyl group, soluable

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What are the three lipids structures that you need to know are related to their functions?

What are triglycerides mainly used as? what do the long hydrocarbon tails of the fatty acids contain a lot of? meaning? because of these tails how much more enery do the lipids contain than carbohydrates per gram? what are they also? what dont they cause? by what? which wouild make them what? what do the triglycerides bundle together as in the cell? why? meaning? 

What do phospolipids make up? of what? what do cell membranes control? What are phospholipid heads? and there tails? what do they form? with what facing where?whats the centre of the bilayer? what does this mean? what does it act as then?

What do cholesterol molecules help? how? describe its size and shape? what do these allow? what do they bind to? whats does this cause? what does this help to make the membrane? and more?

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Triglycerides, Phospholipids and cholesterol

energy storage molecules, chemical energy, a load of energy is released when theyre broken down, twice as much, insoluable so they dont cause ater to enter the cells by osmosis which would make them swell, insoluable droplets, because the fatty acid tails are hydrophobic so the tails face inwards shiedling themselves from wtaer with their glycerol head

the bilayer of cell membrnes, control what enters and leaves a cell, hydrophillic, hydrophobic, form a double layer with their heads facing out towards the water on either side, hydrophobic so water osluable substances cant easily pass through it, acts as a barrier to those substances

Strnegthen the cell by interacting with the phospolipid bilayer, small and flattened, allow cholestorl to fit in between the phospholipid molecule, hydrophobic tails, causing them to pack moer closely together, less fluid and more rigid

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Biochemical tests for molecules

What is sugar the general term for two things?What can all sugars be classisifed as? what test do you for sugars? when does the test differ?

What do reducing sugars include all? give example? and some what? give example? what do you add to what? what colour is the regeant? what do you do next? what do you make sure the soloution doesnt do? what will form if the test is posotive? what is this? list the colour change?why should you always use an excess of the benedicts soloution? what does the higher concentration of reducing sugar mean for the colour? what can you use this for? whats a moer accurate way of doing this? then what?

Give example of non reducing sugar? to test for them what do you do first? how do you do this? with what? and then what? with what? then what do you carry out? If the result of this test is posotive what could the sugar annoyingly be? how do you check if its non reducing? to rule what out?

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Monosaccharides and disaccharides, reducing or non reducing, benedicts test, depedning on the type of sugar you are testing for

all monosaccharides, glucose and some disaccharides, maltose, benedicts regeant to a sample, blue, and then heat it, it doesnt boil, it will forma  coloured precipitate, solid particles suspended in the soloution, blue green yellow orange brick red, this makes sure that all the sugar reacts, the further the colour change goes, to compare the amount of reducing sugar in differnet soloutions, to filter the soloutoon and weigh the precipitate

Sucrose, first you have to break them down into monosaccharides, by boiling the test soloution with dilute hydrochloric acid and then neutralising it with sodium hydrogencarbonate, carry out the benedicts test as you would for reducing sugar, it could reducing or non reducing, you need to do the reducing sugar test to rule out it being a reducing sugar

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Biochemical tests for molecules

What test do you use for starch? what do you add to the test sample? if starch is present what does the sample change from to? if theres no starch what happens?

What test do you use for proteins? how many stages in this test? what does the test soloution need to be? so what do you add a few drops of first? what do you add next? if protein is present what forms? if theirs no proteins what happens? why do you need to look carefully?

what test do you use for lipids? What do you do first? for how long? what do you pour it into? if a lipid is present what will happen? the milkier it is the what? what happens if theirs no lipid present?

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Iodine Test, iodine dissolved in potassium iodide soloution, changes from browny-orange to a dark blue-black colour, it stays browny-orange

Biuret test, two, alkaline, add a few drops of sodium hydroxide solution, then you add some copper (II) sulfate soloution, a purple layer forms, will stay blue, the colours are pale

Shake the test substance with ethanol for about a minute, water, soloution will turn milky, the more lipid there is, the soloution will stay clear

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Biochemical Tests for Molecules

What does a quantitative version of the benedicts test allow? what does it use? whats that? how? what does it measure? absorbacne of what? the more concentrated the colour of the solution the higher or lower the absorbance? whats difficult to measure in the benedicts test? so when estimating glucose concentration what do you measure of what? the paler the solution left the more wwhat? so the higher the glucose concentration the what?

What do you need to make fisrt? to do this what do you need to? give examples? what should be the same? what test do you do on each solution? what do you use the same amount of? why does it have to be large enough volume? what do you remove from the solutions? what are the ways to do this? what do you use to measure the absorbance? where? what do you use the reuslts to make? showing what agaisnt what? 

What can you then test? in what way? and use the calibration curve to find what? give an example?

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Allows you to estimate how much glucose or other reducing sugar there is in a solution, colorimete, a device that measures the strength of a coloured solution by seeeing how much light passes through it, measures absorbance, the amount of light absorbed by the solutionthe higher the absorbacne is, to measure the concentration of the coloured precipitate formed in the benedicts test, the concentration of the blue beneditcs  solution thats left after the test, the more glucose there was, the lower the absorbance of the solution

Calibration curve, make up several glucose solutions of differnet known concentrations, 10mM 20mM 30mM, same volume of each, do a benedicts test, same amount of benedicts solution, to react with all the sugar in the strongest solution and still have some left over regeant, precipitate, either leave the test tubes fo 24 hours so it settles out or centifuge them, colorimeter,of the benedicts solution remained in each tube, to make a calibration curve, shwoing absorabnce agaisnt glucose concentration

Unknown solution in the same way as the known concentrations and use the calibration curve to find its concentration, unkonw gives an absorbance of 0.80 reading across and down the graoh to get the concentration

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What does DNA stand for? what does it contain? what is genetic material? needed for what? from what to what? Describe the length of the DNA molecules? what are they like? what does this mean? where? what structure do DNA moelecules have? what does it amke easier? whats this called? whats two things is it imporant for? What does DNA contain? what are genes? what do they contain? what dot they do? forming what? what is RNA? what does RNA stand for? whats its structure similiar to? whats it used to make? from what?

What is DNA? whats it made up of? are they joined together? what three things is each nucleotide made from? what does each nucelotide have the same? what varies? what are the four possible bases? what type of base are adenine and guanine called? what type of base are cytosine and thumine called?Draw a nucleotide?

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Deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic information, thats all the instructions needed to grow and devlop, froma fertilised egg to a fully gorwn adult, long and cpiled up very tight, so a lot of genetic information can fit into a small palce in the cells nucleus, paired stricture, easier to copy itself, self-replication, cell divison and passing genetic information from generation to generation, genes, sections of DNA which contain the insturctions, they code for a specific sequence of amino acids, a particular protein,  nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, DNA, to make proteins from the instrcution contained within DNA,

Polynucleotide, lots of nucleotides joined together, deoxyribose sugar a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing base, deoxyribose sugar and phosphate group, nitrogen containg base,  adenine thymine cytosine and guanine, purine, pyrimidines

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what do DNA nucleotides join together to form? where do the nucleotides join up? How do two DNA polynucleotide strands join together? what can each base join together with? whats this called? what does adenine always pair with? what does guanine always pair with? what does a purine alwyas pair with then? how many hydrogen bonds from between A and T? how many hydrogen bonds form between C and G? what does antiparallel mean? what forms the double the DNA double helix? draw a single polynucleotide strand? draw two joined pilynucleotide strands? draw double helix?

What are RNA and DNA both made from? containg what three things? what does each nucletode in both RNA and DNA contain? what do the nucleotides form? whats its joined up between? How many ways does the structure of RNA differ from DNA? list them? what is uracil? whatd does it pair iwith?

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Polynucleotide strands, between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the sugar of another, by hydrogen bonding between the bases, each base can only join with one particular partnert, complementary base pairing, adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine, pruine pairs with a pyrimidine, two, three, running in opposite directions, two antiparrallel polynucleotide strands twist

Nucleotides containing sugar phosphate and nitrogen containing bases, one of four different bases, a polynucleotide strand, joined up between the sugar of one nucletoide and the phosphate of another, three, the sugar in RNA nucleotides is a ribose sugar not deoxyribose, the nucleotides form a single polynucleotide strand not a double one, uracil is a pyrimidine which repalces thymine as a base it alwys pairs with adenine in RNA

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DNA replication and Protein Synthesis

When does DNA not copy itself? why?

What happens first? what does the helix do? forming? what does each original single strand ac as? for what? what join to the exposed bases on each orginal template strand? by what? what bases pair? what are the nucleotides on the new strand joined together by? what forms between the bases? on what strands? what does each new DNA molecule contain? what is this type of copying called? why?

What is a gene? codes for what? whats another word for protein? what are proteins made from? what do different proteins have? what determines the order of the amino acids in a particular protein? what is each amino acid coded by? what do different sequences of bases code? what does the order of bases GTC code for? amd TCA? give an example of an order of amino acids in a polypeptide?

What do all reactions and process in living organisms need? What does DNA carry? as what? wheres it found? what organelle makes proteins? where are they found? why cant the DNA molecules move out of the nucleus? what happens instead? what does the RNA do? what does it join with? what can it be used to do? so wahst vital for living organisms to produce proteins? what do proteins allow? draw the chain of events just described?

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before cell divison,  so that each new cell has the full amount of DNA,

Hydrogen bonds between the two polynucleotide DNA strands break,  the helix unzips to form two single strands, as a template for a new strand, free flaoting nucleotides, complementary base pairing, A with T and G with C, enzyme DNA polymerase, hydrogen bonds, one strand from the orgianl DNA molecule and one new strand, semi-conservative replication because half of the new strands of DNA are from the original piece of DNA

Is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a protein, polypeptide, amino acids, have a differnt number and order of amino acids, the order of nucleotide bases in a gene, three bases in a gene, amino acids, valine, serine, valine serine serine

Proteins, the instructions to make proteins, as genes, in the nucleus, ribosomes found in the cytoplasm, they are to large to move out of the nucleus, sections of DNA are copied into RNA,  RNa leaves the nucleus and joins with a ribosome in the cytoplasm where it can be used to synthesise proteins, DNA and RNA, grow and develop

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Action of Enzymes

What do enzymes do? by acting as what? what is a cataylst? what sort of reactions do they catalyse? where? give examples? what does intercelluar mean? what does extracelluar mean? give an example? where can enzyme action be? what are enzymes? What do enzymes have? what does that have? what happens at the active site? what does substrate molecule mean? what is the specific shape of the active site determined by? what makes the enzyme work? so its shape has to be? what if the substrae shape doesnt mactch the active site? what does this mean? usually how many?

What needs to be supplied to the chemcilas befoer the reaction will start? whats this energy called? whats it often provided by? what do enzymes reduce? what does this often make? what does this do? what is formed when a substance binds to an enzyme active site? what is it that lowers the activiation energy?how many reasons why? If two substrate molecules need to be joined togetehr what do they do? what does this do? reducing what? allowing what? If the enzyme is catalysing a breakdown reaction what does fiting into the active site do? what does this mean?

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Speed up chemical reactions, biological catalysts, is substance that speeds up a chemicak reacction without being used up in the reaction, metabolic reactions, body, digestion and respiration, within cells, outsied of cells like the blood and digestive system, intracelluar or extracelluar, globular proteins, active site which has a speciifc shape, substarte molecules bind to, the substacne that the enzyme interacts with, the enzymes tertiary structure, has to fit into the active site, complementary, the reaction wont be catalysed, this means that enzymes work with very few substrates, usually one

A certain amount of energy, activation energy, heat, the amount of activiation energy thats needed, at lower temperatures, speeding up the rate of reaction, an enzyme-substrate complex, the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex, two, they attach to the enzyme which holds them close together, reduce the repulsion between the molecules so they can bond more easily, puts a strain on bonds ion the substarte, this strain means the subtstarte molecule breaks up more easily

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Action of Enzymes

What will enzymes only work with?what did early scientists studying the action of enzymes come up with? what is it? draw the four steps of the lock and key model? What did scientists soon realise? what did new evidence show? what does this do? what doid they modify the lock and key model to come up with?

What does the induced fit model help to explain?  drwa the four steps of the induced fit model? as well as having to be the right shape to fit the active site what does it also have to do? whats this a prime exmaple of? is the induced fit model still accepted? will it always?

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With substrates that fit their active site,  lock and key model, where the substare fits into the enzyme in the same way that a key fits into a lock, it didnt give the full story, they do have to fit together but the enzyme substarte complex changed shape slightly to complete the fit, locks the substaret even more tightly to the enzyme, induced fit model

helps to explain why enzymes are so specific and only bond to one particular substrate, it has to make the active site change shape in the right way as well, of how a widely accepted theory can change when new evidence comes along, yes for now

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Factors affecting Enzyme Activity

Like any chemical reaction what happens to the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction when temperature increases? what does more heat mean? so what do molecules do? what two things are more likely to do more frequently? what happens to teh erngyu of these collision? what is each collision more likely to reasult in? what happens if the temperature gets too high?

What does the rise in temp make enzyme molecules do? what happens if the temp goes above a certain level? what happens to the active site? mening? whats happened to the enzyme at this point? meaning? what does every enzyme have? what is it for most human enzymes? what can some in biological washing powders work well at?

What do enzymes also have an optimum of? what ph do most human enzymes work well at? which is  acid or alkaline? what are there though? give example? what does taht work best at ? acid or alkaline? why is this useful? What can happen above or below there optimum ph? what happens to the active site? what is the enzyme?

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Increases, mmeans more kinetic energy so molecules move faster, enzymes are more likely to collide with substarte molecules, increase, is more likely to result in a reaction, the reaction stops,

Makes enzyme molecules vibrate more, the vibration breaks some of the bonds that hold the enzyme in shaoe, changes shape and the enzyme and substarte no longer fit togther, denatureed, it no longer functions as a catalyst, optimum temperature, 37, 60

Optimum pH value, 7, neutral, pepsin, acidic pH 2,  its found in the stomach, the H+ and OH- ions found in acids and alkalis can mess up the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds that hold the enzymes teritarty structure in place, change sshape, denatured

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Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

If theres more enzymes molecules in a soloution whats more likely to happen? and form what? so increasing concentration does what for the rate of reaction? what if the amount of substarte is limited? why?

The higher the substrate value what does this mean for the rate of reaction? more substarte molecules means more what between what? what are used more? this is only true up until what point? after that what happens? what happens to the rate of reaction?

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the more likely a substarte molecule is to ocollide with an enxyme and form an enzyme-substrate complex, increasing the concentration of the enzyme increases the rate of reaction, there comes a point when there more than enough enxyme molecules to deal with all the avaiable substrate, so adding more enzymes have no further effect

the faster the reaction, means a collision between the substrate and enzyme is more likely and so no more active sites will be used,saturation point, there are no substrat molecules that the enzymes have about as much as they can cope with as all the alctive sites are full, adding more makes no difference

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Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

What do you need to be able to describe about the effects of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and substarte concentration? what are the two ways of measureing the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction?

What does the first example measure? what enzyme can be measured with this? what does catalase catalyse? whats easy to collect? and what? draw the diagram with 5 labels?

What can be measured in example 2? rather than what? what can you campare this to? what does the enzyme amylase catalyse? is it easy to detect starch? using what solution and what? what can you time? how? what can you use the times? draw the diagarm?

General tips on what to include when describing an experiment: Describe the ____ and the ____ youd use. Say what your _____ (___ ____) e.g. the ______ of gas produced per ____ . Describe how youd ____ the ___ ____ e.g. if your independant variable is  enzyme ______ you might test five differnet ______ of enzyme. Describe what _____ your keeping constant e.g. _____, __, _____, ______ . Say that you need to ____ the experiemtn at least twict to make the results more _____ . Say that you need a _____ e.g. a test tube containg the __ ____ but no _____

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How they can investigated experimentally, measure how fast the product of the reaction appears and you can measure the disappearance of the substrate

Measure how fast the prodyct of the reaction appears,catalase, the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, to collect the oxygen produced and measure how fast its given off

Disappearance of the substarte rather than the appearance of the product, compare the rate of reaction under different conditison, th e breakdown of starch to maltose, easy to detect, usuing a solution of potassium iodide and iodine, how long it takes for the starch to disappear by reguarly sampling the starch solution, to compare the rates between different tests,

method, apparatus,measure (dependent variable) gas, minute, vary, independant variable, concentration, concentrations, variables, temp, ph, colume of solution, concentration,  repeat, reliable, control, substarte solution enzyme

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Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

When will some enzymes only work? what are these non-protein substances called? what are some cofactors? what do they work to help? do they directly participate? what dose this mean doesnt happen? give an exmaple of a cofactor? found in what enzyme? what do they catalyse? draw an enzyme with a cofactor?

what are other cofactors? what are they called? how do they participate? what happens to them then? what are they like? what do they often act as? how? what happens to them continually during the process?draw diagram?

What can enzyme activity be prevented by? what are they? Inhibition can be ___ or ___-____.

What do compeitive inhibtor molecules? what do they compete with? to do what? but what happens when they bind? what do they do instead? so what cant happen? how much the enzyme is inhibited depends on what? if theres a high concentratopm of the inhibotr what will happen?

Where do non-competitive inhibtor molecules bind? away from what? what does this cause? what cant happen? what dont they do? why? why wont increasing the concentration of substae work?

AS well as competivie and non-compeiive, inhibtors can be _____ or ___-____. what does which one they are depend on? whats a strong bond? if theyre covalent whats the inhibition? why? Give example of weak bond?  the inhibiton is? why?

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If there is another non-protein substance bound to them, cofactors, inorganic molecules, by helping the enzyme and substrate to bind together, they dont directly participate so they arent used up or changed, manganese ions are cofactors found in hydrolase, enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of chemical bond

organic molecules, coenzymes, they participate in the reaction and are chaned, second substrate, as carrier moving chemical groups between differnt enzymes, continually recycled during this process

Enzyme inhibitors, molecules that bind to the enzyme that they inhibit, compeitive or non-competiitve,

Similiar shape to that of the substarte molecules, with the substrate molecules to bind to the active site, no reaction happens, they block the active site so no substrate molecule can fit in, the relative concentrations of the inhibtor and substrate, itl take up nearly all the active sites and hardly any substrate will get to the enzyme

To the enzyme away from the active site, to change shape, substare molecules can no longer fit, compete with the substrate molecules to bind to the active site, because they are a differnet shape, enzyme activity will be inhibited

Reversible or non-reversible, strength of the bonds between the enzyme and the inhibitor, covalent, irreversible as they cant be removed easily, hydrogen bonds or weak ionic bonds, reversible as the inhibitor can be removed

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Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

What do metaboilic poison interfer with? where do metaboilc reactions occur? what does this cause? what are they often? what might you be asked to describe the action of? What is cyanide? reversible or irreversible? of what enzyme? what does that catalyse/ what happens to cells that cant respire? What doe smalonate inhibit? what does that catalyse? What does arsenic inhibit? what does that catalyse?

What are some medical drugs? what are antiviral drugs? give an example of one? what do they inhibit? what do they catalyse? what dose this prevent? give an exmaple of an antibitotic? what does that inhibit? what does that catalyse? what does this do? preventing? whats the result?

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Interfer with metabloic reactions, that occurn in cells, causing damage illness or death, enzyme inhibtors, action of one named poison, is an irrveersible inhibitor of cytocrhome c oxidase an enzyme that catalyses respiration reactions, they die, succiante dehydrogenase, respiration ractions, pyruvate dehydrogenase, respiration reactions

Enzyme inhibtiors, drugst that stop viruses like HIV, reverse transriptase inhibtors inhibit the enzyme rever transcriptase, the repkcation of viral DNA, the virus from replicating

Penicillin, the enzyme transpeptidase, the formation of proteins in bacteria cell walls, weakens the cell wall and prevents the bacterium from regulating its osmotic pressure, the cell bursts and the bacterium is killed

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Balanced Diet

What does  a balanced diet give? plus what? what are the 7 important nutrients and their function?

Define malnutrition? how many causes? whats the first? having a what sort of diet? what can getting to little of a nutrient lead to? give example?getting to many carbohydrates or fats can lead to what? whats the third cause? give example? what does this cause?

What sort of condition is obsesity? whats it caused by? what is obsesity defined as? what are the three main causes? what can obesity also be due to? whats risks are increased by being obese?

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You all the nutrients you need, fibre and water, carbohydrates which provide energy, fats (lipids) act as an energy store provide insulation make up cell membranes ohyscially protect organs, prtoeins, needed for growth repair of tissues and to make enzymes, vitamins, differnet vitamins have differnt function for instacne viatmin d is need for calium absorption whereas vitamin k is needed for blood clotting, mineral salts , differnet mineral salts have differnt functions e.g. iron is need to make haemoglobin in the blood but calcium is needed for bone formation, fibre aids movemnt of food through the gut, water is used in chemcial reactions we need a constant supply to replace water lost ithrough urinating breathing and sweating

is caused by too little or to much of some nutrients in the diet, three, not having enough food so you get too little of every nutrient, having an unbalanced diet, getting to little of a nutrient can lead to all kinds of deficency illnesses like to little iron causes anameia, can laed to obsesity, not being able to absorb the nutrients from digestion into your bloodstreat prioperly, coeliac disease reduces absorption of nutrients from the small intenstine, deficiency illnesses

A common dietary condtion, eating to much food, as being 20% or more over the recommend body weight, to much sugary or fatty foods and to little exercise, underactive thyroid gland, diabetes, arthrits, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and some cancers

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Balanced Diet

What is coronary heart disease the result of? what can it lead to? called? what else? whats it caused by? what is that? what are the coronary arteries? what does a diet with high satiruated fat raise? what does this increase? where? called the what? what does this cause? a diet with high salt can cause what? what can this damage? what does this cause?

what is cholestoral? made where? what is some needed for? what does it need to attacthed to to be moved around? so what does the body form? what are they? how many types of lipoproteins are there? what are they? what are HDL's mainly? whre do they transport cholestorol? for it to be what? whats is there function then? What are LDL's mainly? where do they transprot cholestorl? what does it do then? whats the LDL function then? A diet high in satrated fat raises what level? so what is there more of where? what does this increase? what does this increase the risk of? A diet high in polyunsaturated fat raises what level? so more what is whre? decreasing the what? and decreasing the risk of what?

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is the result of reduced blood to the heart, chetst pain (angina) and heart attacks, atherosclerosis which is the narrowing and hardening of the coronoary arteries which are the blood vessels that supply the heart, blood cholestorl level increasing the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries called atheromas whcich causes atherosclerosis, causes high blood pressure, this can damage artery walls which causes artheosclerosis

a lipid, made in the body, for the body to function normally, to a protein, lipoproteins, substances composed of both protein and lipid, two types, High density lipoproteins and low density liporoteins, mainly protein , cholestorl from body tissue to the liver, where its recylced or excreted, is to reduce blood cholestorl when level is too high, are mainly lipid, from the liver to the blood, where it circulates until needed by cells, to increase blood cholestoerol when the level is too low, LDL level, cholestorl is transported to the blood, increasing total blood cholesterol, of CHD, HDL level, more cholesterol is transported from the blood to the liver, decreasing total choleserol and the risk of CHD

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Food Production

What do humans rely on? why? what do plants use energy from the sunlight to do? give example? what do humans and other animals do with the compounds? what do they use them for? what do we go plants for? and? which we then? What do many modern farming methods aim to do? by what?

What are fertilisers? what do they aim to do? how? such as give three? what do plants them for? what happens to minerals in soil? when? what do fertilisers do? so that? what can fertilisers be? meaning? give example? or? meaning?

What are pesticidses? what do they increase? how? what does this mean? What do pests include? what mammals? what are some pesticides like? meaning? or they can be? meaning they can do what? what may also be harmed?

What are aniamls that are farmed for food often given? what are they? what do antibiotics help? What do animals normally use up when fight diseases?what does this reduce? what does giving them antibitotics mean? what do antibitotics also help to promotoe? why is this thought to be? allowing what? what can this increase both of?

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Plants for food because they are the start of all food chains, to convert carbon dioxide and water into complex organic compound, carbohydrates, eat digest and absorb the compounds, which they use for energy and to grow, direct consumption and to feed animals which we then eat, to maximise productivity by increasing plant and animal growth

Chemicals that increase crop yields by providing minerals, nitrate phosphate and potassium, that plants need to grow, they are used up during crop growth, replace these minerals so that a lack of minerals doesnt limit growth of the crops, natural, made by natural processes e.g. compost and manure, or artifical made by humans

Chemicals, that increase crop yields by killing pests that feed on the crops, fewer plants are damaged or destoryed, microorganisms insect mammals (rats), specific and kill only one pest species or they can be broad and kill a range of different species, this means some non-pest species could also be harmed

Antibiotics, chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, to treat or prevent disease caused by bacteria, use energy, the amount of energy avaiable for growth, can use more energy to grow, increasing food production, to promote the growth of animals,because the antibitotics influence bacteria in the animals gut allowing animals to digest food more efficeintly, growth rate of the animal and its size when mature

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Food Production

What does selective breeding involved? give examples?to do what with eacher? to increase? What is selected first? what is hoped they will increase? give example? do what with them? whats then selected? give example? and then do what with them? whats this continued over? until what? give example?

What is selective breeding also carried out to produce? what are bred together? what is then bred together? whats this continued over? to produce what?

What can selective breeding also be used to increase? name 4 useufl characteristics in animals? what is selceted? give example? do what with them? what is selected? give example? do what with them? continue this over what? until what? give example?

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Selecting plants with good characteristics, high yield, disease resistance or pest resistance, to reprodue together in order to increase productivity, plants with good charcateristics, that will increase crop yield, a tall corn plant and a corn plant that produces multiple ears, breed them together, the offspring with the best charcateristics, tallest with the most ears and breed them together, over several generations until a high-yielding plant is produced, very tall with multiple ears of corn

Resistant to disease or pests, plants showing high level of resistance are bred together, the offspring that show the most resistance are then bred together, several generations to produce a crp[ that is disease or pest resistant

To increase the productivity of animals, fast growth rate high maet milk or egg yields, select animals with good characteristics that will increase meat yield, largest cows and bulls, breed them together, the offspring with the best charcacteristics, largest and breed them together,over several generations, cows with very high meat yields are produced, very large cows

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Microorganisms and food

Name three microgorganisms? what production are they used in? what can some microorganism convert? what do humans use this?

Whats mixed to make bread? whats yeast a type of? into what? what does the yeat turn into what? what makes the bread rise? whats added to what to make wine? what does the yeast turn? whats ethanol? Whats added to what to make cheese? what does the bacteria turn? what does this cause? whats is then used to turn the curdled milk into what? whats seperated off? whats it left to happen? Whats added to what to make yoghurt? what does the bacteria turn? causing the milk to do what? into what?

How fast do populations of microorganisms  gorw? under what though? so what can be produced quickly? what can microorganisms grow on? how can their enviroment be controlled? meaning? are conditions easy to create? food made using microgansims lasts longer where? unlike what? give example?

Whats there a high risk of? what are conditions to grow the deseriable microorganisms also favourable to? what could they cause the food? or if eaten? conditions are easy to create but what can easily kill the microrganisms?

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Bacteria, yeast and other fungi, of many foods and drinks, can convert sugar into other substances that humans can then use for food production,

Mixing yeast, sugar, flour and water, fungus, into a dough, into ethanol and carbon dixoide, carbon dioxide, yeast to grape juice, sugar in the grape juice into ethanol and carbon dioxide, alchol, adding bacteria to milk, sugar in the milk into lactic acid, the milk to curdle, enzyme used to turn the curdled milk into curds and whey, curds seperated off and left to ripen into cheese, adding bacteria to milk, turn the sugar in the milk into lactic acid, causing the milk to clot and thicken, yoghurt

Rapidly, the right condiitons, food can be pprduced quickly, on a range of inexpensive materials, artifically controlled, so you can potentially grow food anywhere and at any time of the year, easy, lasts longer in storage than the raw product theyre made from, cheese can be stored for longer than milk

Food contamination, to harmful microorganisms, food produce to spoil (go of) cause illness such as food poisioning, small changes in temperature or pH can easily kill microorganisms

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Microorganisms and Food

What can food spoilage be cause by? what happens as the organisms grow? contaminating it with what? what does perveneting food spoilage involve? what does this do?

What is salting? what does salt do? how? why do they need to absorb water? what is preserved by salting? what are tined foods preserved in? What does adding suagar do? how? give an exmaple? what does this give the jam? What do freezers keep? what does this slow? what does it freeze?so what cant use it? how long can freezing preserve foods? What does vinegar have? what does this reduce? what does this mean? inhibiting hwwat? what is vinegar used to do? What does heat treatment involve? what does this kill? name a form of heat treatment? what does it invoolve?  What does irradiation involve? for example? what does this treatment do? extending what? 

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Can be caused by the growth of unwatned microorganisms, they break down the food, waste products, involves either killing the microorganisms or depriving the microorganisms of the conditions they need to grow, slows down or stops their growth

Is adding salt to foods, inhibits the growth of microorganisms by interfering with their ability to absorb water, which they need to survive, meats, in brine a mixture of salt and water, also inhibits the growth of microorganisms by interfering with their abiltity to absorb water, the sugar contnet of fruit jams reduces the growth of microorganisms, a long shelf life, below -18 degrees, this slows down reactions taking place in microorganisms and dreezes the water in the food so the microgansims cant use it, for many months, low pH whcih reduces enzyme activity in microorganisms, they cant function properly inhibitng their growth, to piclle foods like onions, involves heating food to a high temp, which kills any microorganisms present, pasteurisation, inolves raising liquids such as milk to a high temp, exposing foods to radiaiton, xrays gamma rays, kills any microorganisms present and can extend shelf life considerably

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Infectious Disease

Define health?  define disease? what can a disease be cause by? with what? define a pathogen? define a parasite? are pathogens and parasites the same thing? what usually grouped as pathogens?  whats the organisms infected called?what are usually goruped as parasites? What three things can disease also be caused by? give example if needed? what are infectious diseases? give examples?

What is plasmodium? single or multicelluar? hows it transmitted> what are they? what do they do? including what? what are mosquitoes? what does this mean? what do they transfer? into what? when? what does plasmodium infect? and disurpts? to what?

What does HIV stand for? what does it infect? where can HIV and all other viruses only reproduce? why? what does it do after its reproduced? What does HIV lead to? what does AIDS stand for? what happens when you get AIDS? and eventaully? why?what does it make the person more vulnerable to? like what? How many ways is HIV transmitted? name them?

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Is a state of physical, menatal and social-well being which includes the absence of disease and infirmity so the weakeness of body or mind, is a condition that impairs the normal functioning of an organism, infection with pathogens and parasites, is an organisms that can causes damage to the organism it infects, is an organism that lives on or in another organism and causes damage to that organism, same, bacteria fungi and viruses, tapeworms roundworms and fleas, genetic defects nutrional defiencies and eneviromental factors, toxic chemicals, diseases that can be passed between indiviudlas, malaria HIV TB

Is a eukaryotic single celled parasite, mosquitoes, insects that feed on the blood of animals inclduing humans, vectors, they dont cause the disease themeselves but the spread the infection by transferring the parasite from one host to another, into the animals blood when they feed on the, infects the liver and red blood cells and disrupts the blood supply to vital organisms,

The human immunodeficiency virus, human white blood cells, can only reproduce inside the cells of the organism it has infected because it doesnt have the equipment such a enzymes and ribosomes to replicate on its own, it kills the white blood cells as it leaves, AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the immune systtem detoriares and fails, due to the loss of white blood cells, to other infection, pneumonia, unpropteced sexual intercourse, infected bodily fluids like blood sharing needles blood transfusions, from mother to fetus through placenta breast milk or during childbirth

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Infectious Disease

What deos tb stand for? what disease is it? caused by? called? how does TB spread? what is this? if your infected do you show symptoms? what happens then? give example? what does the infection become? what do they show? what can they do?

Where are malaria, hiv and TB msot common? and? this is because there is limitied what? what does this mean isnt available? people are less likely to be? what arent screened for what? and equipment isnt? What type of education is limited? so people arent? about what? give example? theres limited equipment to reduce? give example? what does it mean by overcrowded conditions?

What does the prevalance of these disease in developing countries slow? why? give on reason why studying the global distribution of these diseases is important? what can any datat be used to do? whats it important for? give example? what does it allow organisation to provide?

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Tuberculosis, is a lung disease caused by the bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis, droplet infection, when infected people cough or sneeze tiny droplets of salvia and mucus containing the bacteria are released from their mouth and nose the droplets are then breathed in by other people, they can be infected and not show symptoms, but if they becoem weakened, by another disease or malnutrition then the infection becomes active, theyll show symptoms and be able to pass the infection

In sub-saharan africa and devloping countries, limitied access to good healthcare, drugs are not always avaiable people are less likely to be diagnosed and treated, blood donations arent screened for infectious diseases and surgical equipment isnt always sterile, health education, people arent ifnormed on how to avoid infectious disease like using a condom to prevent HIV, limitied equipment to reduce the spread like people dont have mosquito nets to reduce the chance of malaria, increases the risk of TB infection by droplet transmission

slows down social and economic development, diseases increase death rates reduce productivityi iei working able people and result in high healthcare costs, the information can be used to find out where people are most at risk, used to predict where epidemics are most likely to occur, research like how it spread, aid and support

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The Immune System

What does the body have a number of? what do they prevent? from doing what? what do they include? what sort of barrier does skin act as? what does it block? from what? what barrier does it also act as? how? that are? that can? inhibitng the? What do mucous membranes protect? such as? what do some membranes excrete? what is mucus?

What happens if a pathogen or parasite gets past the primary defences and enters the body? what is an immune response?  what are antigens? what are they usually? found where? give example of a pathogen? when one invades the body what do the antigens do? what does this do?

How many stages are involved in the immune response? Whast the first stage? give an example of a phagocyte? whats it a type of? what does it carry out? which is? where are they found? what are they the first? What does a phagocyte recognise? what moves round the pathogen? whats the term? whats the pathogen now contained in?whats this like? where? whats a lysosome? what does it fuse with? what does it do? What does the phagocyte then present? what does it stick? to activate what?

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Primary defences, pathogens and parasites from entering it, skin and mucus membranes, physical barrier, blocking pathogens from entering the body, chemical barrier by producing chemicals that are antimicrobial and can lower pH, the growth of pathogens, they protect openings that are exposed to the enviroment, mouth nostrils ears genitals and ****, secret mucus, a sticky substance that traps pahtogens and contains antimicrobial enzymes

The immune system will respond, an immune system is the bodys reaction to a foreign antigen, are molecules usually proteins or polysaccahrides found on the surface of cells, bacterium, the antigens on its cell surface are identified as foreign whcih actives cells in the immune system

4, phagocytes engulf pathogens, macrophage, is a type of white blood cell that carries out phagocytosis, engulfment of pathogens, in teh blood and tissues , to respond to a pathogen inside the body, the antigens on a pathogen, the cytiplasm engulfing it, in a phagocyticc vacuole (a bubble), in the cytoplasm of the phagocyte, an organelle that contains digestive enzymes, fuses with the phagocytic vacuole, the enzymes break down the pathogen, the pathogens antigens, the antigns on its surface to activate other immune system cells

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The Immune system

Whats stage two in the immune response? What is a T lympocyte? what are their surface covered with? what do the receptors bind to? What does each T lymphocyte have? what happens when the receptor of a T lymphocyte meets a complementary antigen? so what will bind with what? What does this activate? what does it do when it activates? what do they carry out? what do some actiavted T lymphocytes release? what do they do? what do some attach  to? what does that do? what do some become? draw t lymphocyte?

Whats the third stage of the immune response?What are B lymphocytes another type of? what are they covered with? called?what do antibodies bind to? to form what? what does each B lymphocyte have a differnet of? where? what happens when the antibody meets a complentary shaped antigen? so what will each lymphocyte bind to? what do this with something else do? what does the activated B lymphocyte do? via what? into what two things? draw b lympocyte?

What is cell signalling? what may cell realse or present? what does it bind to? what does this cause? where is cell singalling realy important? why? give example? what does this activate? what are the T signalling to the B?

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Phagocytes Activate T lympohcytes, is another type of white blood cell, receptors, to antigens presented by the phagocytes, a differnt receptor on its surface, it binds to it, will bind to a different antigen, the T lymphocyte, it divdies and differentiates into different ypes of T lympohcytes that carry out differnt functions, subsatcnes to activate  B lymphocytes, to antigens on a pathogen and kill the cell, memory cells

T Lymphocytes Actiavte B lympohcytes which divide into plasma cells, white blood cells, proteins called antibodies, bind to antigens to form an antigen-antibody compelx, has a differnt shaped antibody on its surface, it binds to it so each B lymphocyte will bind to a differnt antigen, together with subsatnces released from the T lymphocyte  activates the B lymphocyte, divides by mitosis into plasma cells and memory cells

Is basically how cells communicate, a subsatcne that binds to the receptors on another cell, a rsponse in the other cell, in the immune response because it helps to activate all the differnt types of white blood cells that are needed, T lympohcytes release substances that bind to receptors on B lymphocytes, this activates the B lymphocytes, the T lymphocytes are signalling to the B lymphocytes that theres  a pathogen in the body

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The Immune System

Whats the fourth stage of the immune system?what are plasma cells? what are they identical to? what do they secret loads of? what are they specific to? where? What will these antibodies bind to? to form lots of what?

What structure do you need to learn? What do the variable regions of the anitbody form? what is the shape of the varianle region like? what differs between antibodieS? what dose the hinge region allow? when? what does the constant region allow? give example? what is the same in all anitobdies? What are disulfide bridges? what do they hold? draw the antigen-antibody complex?

What do antibodies help to clear? what three ways? what does each antibody have two of? so how many pathogens can one antibody bind to at each time? what do the pathogens become? what then binds to the antibdoies? what happens to a lot of pathogens all at once? what can anibodies also bind to? what does this prevent? what do the toxins become? meaning? what happens to the clump of toxin-antibod compelx also? when antibodies bind to the antigens what may be blocked? why do pathogens need to bind to cell surface receptors? if thyre blocked what cant they do? or?

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Plasma cells make more antibitoics to a specific antigen, clones of the B lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, the anitbody specific to the anthigen into the blood, the antigens on the surface of the pathogen, lots of antigen-antibody complexes,

Antibodies, the antigen binding sites, is complementary to a particular antigen, the variable region, flexibility when the antibody binds to the antigen, binding to receptors on immune systeme cells, phagocytes, the constant region, a type of bond, hold the polypeptide chains together,

An infection, agglutinating pathogens, neutralsiing toxins and preventing the pathogen binding to human cells,  two binding sites, two pathogens at the same time, clumped together, phagocytes then bind to the antibodies and phagocytes. phagocytose, all at once, toxins produced by pathogens, the toxins from affecting human cells, neutralised, inactivate, the toxin-antibody complexes are also phagocytosed, they may block the cell surface receptors, they need to bind to the host cells, cant attach or infect the host cells

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The Immune System

What happens when a pathogen enters the body for the first time? whats this called? describe the rate of the primary response? why?  what happens eventually? what happens meanwhile? After being exposed to an antigen what is produced? by what two things? where do these memory cells remain? for how long? What do memory T lymphocytes remeber? what will it do a second time? What do memory B lymphocytes record? what is the person now? define immune?

What happens if the same pathogen enters the body again? whats thos response called? What do memory B lymphocytes do? what do they produce? Whay do memory T lympocytes do? to do what? The body gets rid of the pathogen before what?

In the primary response how many times has the pathogen entered the body? what about the secondary response? Describe the speed of the primary and seocnary response? What cells aer activated in the primary response? in the secondary response? Are synptoms shown in the priamry response? In the secondary response?

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The antigens on ts surface activate the immune system, primary response, slow, there arent many B lympohcytes that can make the antibody needed to bind to it, will produce enough of the right antibody to overcome the infection, symptoms of the disease, memory cells, both T and B lympohcytes, for a long time, remmeber tje speciifc antigen and will recognise it a second time, Memory B lymphocytes and will  record the speicifc antibodies needed to bind to the antigen, immune, their immune system has the ability to respond quickly to a second infection

The immune system will produce a quicker, stornger immune response, the secondary response. into plasma cells that produce the right antibody to the antigen, divide into the correct type of T Lymphocytes to kill the cell carrying the antigen, any symptoms,

1st time, 2nd time, slow, fast, B and T lymphocytes, Memory Cells, yes, no

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Immunity and Vaccinations

What type of immunity is ACtive Immunity? How many types of active immunity are there? name them? what is natural immunity? what is artifical immunity? What type of immunity is passive immunity? what doesnt the body produce here? how many types of passive immunity are there? name them? what is natural passive immunity? through what two things? What is artifical passive imunnitY? give exmaple?

Is there exposure to antigen in active immunity? and in passive immunity? How long does it take in active immunity? and in passive immunity? out of active and passive which is long-term and which short-term? which one is memory cells produced in?

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You get when your immune system makes its own anitbidoes after being stimuklated by an antigen, two,  natural and artifical, this is when you become immune after cathing a disease, this is when you become immune after youve been given a vacciantioncontaing a harmelss antigen, you get from beigng given antibodies made by differnet organoisms, antibodies on its own, two, natural and artifical, when a baby becomes immune due to the antibodies it recieves from its mother through the placenta and in breast milk, when you become immune after being injected with antibodies from someone else, if you contract tetanus you can be injected with antibodies against the tetnus toxin collect from blood donations

Exposure, no exposure, takes a while for protection to develop, protection is immediate, protection is long term, protection is short term, memory cells are produced, memory cells arent produced,

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Immunity and Vaccination

what do B lymphocytes divide to deal with? what repsonse is this? whilst this is happening what happens to you? what can help avoid this? What do vaccines contain? what does it cause your body to produce?against what? wthout what? what does this mean you become without getting? what happens if the majoirt of a community are vaccinated? what does this mean for people who havent been vaccinateD? why? whats this called? what do vaccines always contain? can they be free? or what? to what? what two ways are vaccines taken? whats the disadvange of taking it orally? or?  what are sometimes given later? whats later? to make sure what?

What does the influenza cause? which is? pwhat do proteins on the surface of the influenza virus act as? name both of them? what do they trigger? what happens to these antigens? what do they form? why wont vaccinations work? whats there different every year? so what has to be made every year? what do laborities collect? what do organisations test for? name two organisation? whats this most effective way against recently circulating influenza viruses? what do goverments and health authorities implement? usuing what? whats this a good example of?

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Build up theirs numbers to deal with pathogens, primary response, you suffer from the disease, vaccinations, antigens, memory cells agaisnt a particular pathogen, the pathogen causing disease, immune without gettings symptoms, the diesease becomes extremly rare, unlikely to get the disease beacase theres no one to catch it from, herd immunity, antigens,attaced to a dead or attenuated (weakend) pathogen, or free, injected or taken orally, are that it could be broken down by enzymes in the gut or the molecules of the vaccine may be to large to absorbed into the blood, booster vaccinations, several  years after, memory cells are produced

Infleunze, flu, antigens, neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, trigerring the immune system,change reguarly forming new strains of the virus, because memory cells produced from the vaccination with one strain of flu will not recognise other strains with differnet antigens, differnet strains of the influenza virus circualting the population, so differnet vaccine has to be made, samples of these different strains test the effectivness of different influenza vaccine sagisnt them, WHO ( world health organisation_ and CDC (centre for disease control), developing new vaccines and choosing one veery year that is the most effective against the recently circulating influenza strain, a programme of vaccination using the most suitable vaccine, how society uses science to inform descision making

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Immunity and Vaccination

what are many medical drugs manufactured using? found where? give example? what are some cancer drugs made? what are daffodils grown to prouce? what size proportion has been investigated so far? whats the possibility? like what? what do possible sources of drugs need to be? how? whats biodiversity? where? what happens if we dont protect them? how do organisms that have already been studied sitll prove to be useful soruces of medicine?

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natural compounds, plants animals or microorganisms, penicillin is obtained from fungi, soil bacteria, to proudce a drug used to treat alzherimers, small proportion, that plants or microorganisms exist that contain compounds that could be used to treat currently incurable diseases liek aids, protected by mainting the biodiersy, the variety of different speices on earth, some epcies may die out before we get a chacnce to study them, as new techniques are developed for identifying purifying and testing compounds

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Smoking and Disease

What three things does smokign increase the risk of?

What happens when damaging occurs to the lining of an artery? over time what three things build up? what happens to them? to form? where? whats this called? what does the artheroma do? restricting? what is artherscleorsis? due to what? what does cigerette contain? what does it cause an increase? what can increase in blood pressure cause? leading to what?

what is coronary heart disease? what do the coronary arteries do? what does this restrict? what does this reduction of blood flow reduce? what can this cause? whats this called? or it can cause a? why does smoking increase the risk of CHD? reducing? transported in what? where is oxygen less avaiable then? including the what? what does nicotine in cigerette smoke also make sticky? what are platelets? what does this increase the chance of? what happens if blood clotting occurs in the coronary arteries? what does the prescene of atheromas also increase? and what increase artheroma formation?

What is a stroke? due to? to the what? what can this be caused by? where? leading to the? what does this reduce the amount of? and therefore?that can reach the what? why does nictoine increase the risk of a stroke? what does carbon monixde also increase? why?

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Artherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke,

white blood cells move into the area, more white blood cells lips and connective tissue, and harden to form a fibrous plaque, at the site of damage, atheroma, partially blocks the lumen of the artery restricing blood flow, is the hardening of arteries due to the formation of atheromas, nicotine, an increase in blood pressure, damage to the arteries, artheromas,

when the coronary arteries have lots of artheromas in them, that supply blood to the heart, restricts blood flow to heart, redcues the amount of oxygen an area of the heart gets, pain (angina) or a heart attack, because carbon monoixed irreversibly combines with haemoglobin reducing the amount of oxygen transported in the blood, oxygen avaiable to tissue, heart, platelets, cells involved in blod clotting, increase the chance of blood clots forming, heart attack, blood clots forming, smoking,

Is a rapid loss of brain functiion due to a disruption in the blood supply to the brain, blood clot in an artery leading to the brain, amount of blood, oxygen to the brain, because it increases the risks of clots forming, reduces the amount of oxygen avaible to the brain by combining with haemoglobin

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Smoking and Disease

What does cigarette smoke contain many of? what are they? what can they cause a cell to become?what can thes carcingogens cause? of what? what could this lead to?and the formation of? what does malignant mean? how do malignant tumours grow? what does this block? what does this decrease? what does this lead to shortness of?why? what two things does the tumour use a lot of?to do what? what sort of loss does this cause?

What is chhronic brocnhitus? what is the upper rspiratory tract lined with? what do they prodyce? to trap what? what is the tract also lined with? what do they do? what does cigarette smoke damage? what does it do to the gobelt cells? what does the mucucs do? what does this cause? to try and do what? what do microorgnaisms do in the mucus? what does this cause? what does this lead to? what does this decrease? what is chronic brocnhitits a type of? whats the acroynm? what is COPD? that involve?

What is emphysema? caused by what? or? whats it also a type of? what happens to foregin particles in the smoke or air? what does this cause? what does this encourage in the right area? what do the phagocytes produce? what does it break down? whats elastin?found where? what happens to the alveolar wall?what happens to the elasticity? what does this reduce? what rate decreases? what are symptoms of emphysema? what do people with it have an increased rate fof? why?

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Carcinogens, cheiclas that can cause a cell to become cancerous,  mutations in the DNA of lung cells, uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of a malignant tumour, cancerous, grow uncontrablly, air flow to areas of the lungs, gas exchange, of breath, because the body is struggling to take in enough oxygen, nutrients and energy to grow, weight

is inflammation of the lungs, goblet cells that priduce mucus to trap microorganisms, cilia that beat to move the mucus towards the throoat so it can be removed, the cilia, to produce more mucus, acculmates in the llungs, increased coughing to try and remove the mucus, multiply, lung infection that lead to inflammation, gas exchange, chronic obstructuve pulmonary disease, COPD, is a group of diseases that involves permanent airflow reduction,

a lung disease caused by smoking or long term exposure to air pollution, COPD, in become trapped in the alveoli, inflammation, phagocytes, an enzyme, elastin, elastic protein, walls of the alveoli, are destroyed, is lost, surface area of the alveoli, gaseous exchange, shortness of brearh and wheezing, increased breath rate, as they try to incres the amount of air containg oxygen reaching their lungs

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Smoking and Disease

What might you have to evaluate efidence linking?a graoh that shows an increase in heart attccks deu to an increase in more cigarretes is  a what sort of correlation on a graph? why cant you say that smoking more cuases an increased risk of dyging froma  heart attck?

When evaluating the study what do you need to think about?what does the bigger the sample mean? what can people do in questioanires? reducing what? what if the study only uses a specific group of people i.e doctors? whats the data? even if its a gorup with the same age or job arent they? give example? what do you need to control in an experiment?

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Smoking to diease or death, posotive, there could be other factors casuing the opatter like alchol, study method could affect the results,the more reliable the results, lie on quesitonaires relaibility, they might avoid the risk factors assosiated with the disease, bias, werent matched, there weight might differ, control as many variables as possible

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Studying Biodiversity

Define biodiversity? define species? define habitat? what factors does it include? like what? what other facotrs? like what? whats an area with high biodiversity?

What is habitat diversity? give example? name them? Whats species diversity?give example? give examples? whats genetic diversity? or? give example? what are alleles?

whats to time cosnuming? in most cases whats wrong with it? whats taken instead? whats based on the sample? when samplign whats chosen first? what is this? whast counted? what does how you do this depend on? what would you use for platns? whats this? what would it eb for flying insects? whats is this? what woud you sue ground insects? whast this? and for aqautic animals? whats repeated? taking as many as what possible? what does this gvie? what are the results use to estimate? whens ampling differnet habitats and comparing them whats always use the same? how do you avoid bias results? for example if you were looking at plant species in a field how could you pcik random sample sites? what do you also need to here?

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The variety of living organisms in an area, a group of similiar organisms able to reproduce to give fertile offspring, the area inhabited by a species, physical factors like the soil and temp rang eand the living (biotic) factors like avaibilty of food or the prescene of predators, lots of species

the number of differnet habitats in an area, coastal area could contain many differnt habitata, beaches sand dunes mudlflta salt marshes, the number of species and the abundance of each speceis in an area, a woodland could contain many differnet species of plants insects birds and mammals, the variation of alleles withing a species or a population of a species, human blodo type is determined by a gen with four differnet alleles

time consuming to count every indicular organism in a habitat, sample of the population, estimates about the whole habitat, an area, a small area withing the habitat being studied, the number of individuals of each species, what your counting, a qudrat, a frame which you palce on the ground, sweepnet a net on a pole, pitfall trap a small pit that insects cant get out of, net, take as many samples of possible, better indication of the whole habitat, estimate the total number of individuals or the toal number of differnt species in the habitat being studied, same sampling technique, sample should be random, random sties dividing field into a grid and usuing a random numebr genrator to select coordinates,doo as many repeats as possible

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Studying Biodiversity

The greater the species _____ and species _____ in an area, the ____ the ____? What is species richness? the higher the number of species the what? hows it measured? and counting what? what is species eveness? the more similiar the population sizr of each species the what the species eveness? hows it measured? and counting what? check example in the book?

species present in a habitat in very small numbers shouldnt be treated the same as what? what does simpsons index of diversity? what can simpsons index diversity be calculated usuing? what value is it always beteen? what if its closer to 1? the greater the speices richness and eveness the higher the what?  whats the forumla? what does n=? what does N=? whatd does E=?  example in book?

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richness eveness higher biodiversity, is the number of different species in an area, the greater, taking random samples of a habitat and counting the number of different species, is a measure of the relative abundance of each species in an area, the greater, taking a random sample of a habitat, and counting the number of individuals of each differnet species

the same as those with bigger populations, takes into account both species richness and species evenness, can be caluated using a formula, between 0 and 1, the more diverse the habiata, the higher the number, total nmer of indivudla sof one species, total number of organims of all species, sum of added together

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Global Biodiversity

What is global biodiversity? what two species does this include? how many species have scientists named? is the figure exact? whats isnt there?what do some scientists have different oppinions about? what do scientists agree? what are these species classifed as? can they be known but not named? What number do scientists estimate that the total number of species on earth ranges from? what are recent estimates? name one reason why scientists have such differnet ideas? what do we know little about? examples? what could there be? where does biodiversity vary? where is the greast diversity? where does it decrease? what are largely unexplored? what might this mean? when do estimates of global diversity change? whats this an example of?

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Is the total number of species on Earth, named species and unamed species, 1.5 and 1.75 million, isnt exact because theres no central databse of all species, differnt opinions about the classification of certain species, that a lrge population of the species on Earth have not been nameed, undiscovered or are known but havent yet been named, that the total number of species on earh ranges from about 5 million to 100 million, 14 million, differnet scientists have used differnt techniques to make their estimates, about some groups of ogranisms, bacteria and insecys, there could be many more than we think, in differnt parts of the world, equator towards the polse, tropical rainforests, current estimates of global biodiversity are to low, as scientists found out new things, tentative nature of scientific knowledge

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Global Biodiversity

What is climate change? for example? how does it occur? what is the scientific consensus on climate change? how? such as? what do greenhouse gases cause? increasing what? what does this cause other types of? like? where will climate change affect? in what ways? some place will get what? other will? some wat? and others? what are all of these likely to affect?

What do most specie need to survive?what could a change in climate mean for a habitable place? can this work the other way? what could this cause in the range of some species? whats range? what could this increase or decrease? give the range change example? what may some species be forced to do? casuing a change in what? what do migrations usually decrease? where? increase what where? Give three reasons why a species could become extinct? what will this decrease? when do corals die? what happend in 1998? why? what became extinct?

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Is the variation in the Earths climate, change in temp and rainfall patterns, naturally, is that the climate change were experiencing at the moment is caused by humans increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, global awrming(increasing global average temperature, ) other types of climate change, chane in rainfall patterns, differnet areas of the world differently, some will get warmer, colder, wetter or drier, global biodiversity

A particular climate, may mean that an area that was inhabitable become uninhabitable and vice versa, increase or decrease in the range of some species, the area they live in, biodiversity, the sotuerhn range limit of the sooty copper butterfly is has moved 60miles north in recent decades, migrate to a more suitable area, in species dsitribution, biodiversity in the areas of species migrate from, biodiversity in the areas they migrate to, there isnta  suitable habitat to migrate to the species is a plant and cant migrate or if the change is too fast, extinct, biodivserity, if wtater temp changeas by one or two degrees, a coral reef near panama was badly damaged because the temp slightly increase, at least one species of coral as a result

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Global Biodivserity

What can change in climate contribute to? what can become greater for insects? what can these insects carry? how do these ranges become greater? what insect could spread to these areas? what can they carry? what were these areas before? what do the insects bring with them? what could this change in dsitrbution lead to? what could the spread of disease reduce? why? or it oculd lead to? what do warmer and wetter conditions encourage? what does this do for biodiversity?

Name 5 things that will affect patterns of agriculture? what may this also affect? what can land previosuly unsuitable become for agriculture? how? what does this biodivserity? what do different crops need?what happens as the climate in an area change? what could this disrupt? what will some existing species be left without?what will be provided? for what? what does this do for biodiversity in an area? name an extreme weather event of unepxetced condition? what could they result in? what could this disrupt? what would this do for biodiversity?

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spread of disease, the ranges, disease, areas become warmer and wetter, mosquiotes, malaria, diseaes, uninhabitable, the diseases, increase in biodivserity, increase in biodiverstiy, decrese in biodiversity, with some species suffereing population decline or even extinction, fungal disease, increase or decrease

changes in temp raingall the timing of seasons and the frequency of flood and drought, biodiversity, avaible for agriculture, areas that were to hot or to dry to support much biodiversity can be farmed, increases it, differnt conditions, so will the crops grown, dsirupt the food chains, withoust a source of food and new food sources will be provided for other speices, increase or decrease, flood or drought or a change in the timing of seasons, crop failure, disrupt the food chains and decrease biodiversity

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Importantce of Biodiversity

maintaing biodiversity is important for what reason? What two species are important to the global economy? what are derived from plants and animals? what scales are they traded on? name one 5? what are the source of almsot all food and drink? what are clothes made from? where do they come from? give example? what are drugs made from? where are they from? give example? what do we use number of organisms to produce? inclduing what? what are fossil fuels? meaning? whats the importance of other sourceS? whats a huge variety of other materials produced from? including what? what chemicals?what organisms is it important to conserve? as well as? why? for example?

what are the ecoglogical reasons for maintaing biodiversity?what effect can the loss of just one species have? what do some bear species feed on? what do salmon feed on? what if the number of herring decline? whats this an example of? what do decomposer like worms improve? how? what happens if worm numbers decline? what will this affect the growth of? and therfore? whats this an example of? what are hedgegrows? what do they enable? what happens if theyre removed? what will happen to avaibility to food and nesting sites? whats this an example of? where is carbon dioxide stored? what does the destrcuton of forests and peat bogs contribute to? whats this an example of? what can that affect?

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Animals and plants, products, local and global, food and drink clothing drugs fuels other industrail materials, planst and animals, fibres and fabrics are made from planst and animals, cotton from platns and leather from animals, compounds from plants, painkiller morphine is made from poppies, renweable fuels like ethanl and biogas, non renewable, theyll run out, other sources are of major economic importance, plant and animal species, wood paper dyes adhesives oils rubber and chemicals like pestidcides, the organims we currently use to make products, those we dont they may provide us with new products in the future, new drugs for diseases we cant yet cure

complex relationships between organisms and their enviroments, drastic effects, salmon, herring, it can affect both the salmon and the bear populations, disruption of food chains, the quality of soil, by recycling nutrients, soil quality will be affected, the growth of plants and the amount of food avaiable to animals, disruption of nutrient cycles, are wildlife corridors, they enable organisms to move between differnt habitats safely, become isolated, reduced, loss of habitats, in trees ad bogs, is contributing to climate change, habitat destruction, climate

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Importance of Biodiversity

What do some people believe the reason we shoudl conserve species is? what do many organisms have? why shouldnt they become extinct?what do some people believe we as the top of the food chain have? what does religion say about conservation? what type of reasons are these? what do others belueeve we should conserve biodiversity for? what do areas with rich biodiversity provide? the more biodiveristy in an area the more what is likely to be attrated? whats is the other advantage here? what type of reasons are these?

What does maintaing biodiversity have benefits for? What 5 things does agriculture provide? What species pollinate? what do they pollinate? when are there more pollinators? what happens if a disease or pest affects our food supply? how many potator types were planted in Ireland in 1845? what happened to these two types?causing what? what does it mean if the more corp varities are used?what are plant varities needed for? what types of plant can be bred with what types of plants? what do they producec? whats improved? like? what can new crops be bred to cope with? what does more varities mean more of what to choose from?what are natural predators of crop pests like slugs? what does more predators mean? what are many species used as? for what? what does differnet species mean?

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because its the right thing to do, have a right to exist, they shouldnt become extinct as a result of our activites, moral responsibility to conserve biodiversity for future generations, harmony with the natural world is important to many religions, ethical, because it rbigns joy to millions of people, a pleastn attrative enviroment that people can enjoy, more visitors,economic advantage, aesthetic reasons,

agriculture, pollinators protection against disasters new varities pest contrl and a source of food, insetcs like bees and butterflies, fruit and veg crops, the more pollinators are, our food supply is at risk, two varities , disease destoryed both causing famine, less chance there is that all the crops will be destroyed, cross-breeding, wild plant with domestic plants, imrpoved characteistics, increased disease or faster growth, climate change, more characteristics to choose from, frogs birds and hedgehogs, less pests there will be, food sources, for humans and livestock, more possible sources there are to choose from

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Conservation and Biodiversity

what does in situ conservation mean? what does it involve? what is conservation important for ensuring? what does endangered specie mean? whats established as a method of in situ? such as? how are the habitats and species protected here? what can be controlled or prevented to protect local biodiversity? give example? what do we do? what can we protect? give example? what does this allow? what can we restore? such as? what can be promoted? how? what other type of protection can be given to endangered species? how?

Advantages of in situ consrvation- whats both protetceD? can it protect larger or smaller populations? is it more or less disrptive? rather than? is the chacne of recovery greater? rather than what method? whats worng with it? such as?

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on site, involves protecting species in their natural habitat, to ensure the survival of endangered species, species which are at risk of exticntion because of low population or a threatened habitat, prtoetced areas, national parks and nature reserves, by restricting urban development industrial devlopment and farming, the intoduction of species that threaten local biodiversity, grey squirrles arent native to britain they comepte with the native red squirell and ahve caused population deceline, theyre controlled in some areas, habiatas, controlling water levels to conserve wetlands and coppicing (trimming trees) to conserve woodlands, continue living in their natural habitat, damaged areas, such as coastline polluted by oil spill, particular species, protecting food sources or nesting sites, legal protection to endangered species, making it illegal to kill them,

both specie and habitat, larger, less disrptive, than removing organisms frm their habitats, greater, than ex situ methods, difficult to control some factors that are threatening a species like poaching predators or climate change

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Conservation and Biodiversity

What does ex situ conservation mean? what does it involve? what is ex situ conservation often? what can be relocated? to where? give example? where can organisms be breed? then whats done with them? only when? give example? where is breeding carried out? what are botanic gardens? used to do what? for what four purposes? what can be done for endangered and extiplant species in the wild? whats a seed bank? how long? without what? when are seed banks required? by what?

whats the advnatge of ex situ conservation? like what? where can species be reintroduced? Disadvtanges- what size can be cared for? wahats the problem with sustaining the right enviroment? is it more or less successful than in situ? why? or?

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Conservation and Biodiversity

Of site, invovles prtoecting a species by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, last resort, an organism to a safer area, five white rhinos were recently relocated from Conga to Kenya because they were in danger of poachers who kill for their ivory, captivity and reintroducing them to the wild, strong enough, sea eagles have been reinroduced to Britain through a captive breeding rpogramme , animal sancturaties and zoo's, are controlled enviroments used to grow a variety of rare plant for conservation research display and education, can be grown and reintroduced into suitable habitats, sees that are frozen and stored in seed banks, over a century, fertiliity, useful source of sees if natural reserves are destroyed, disease or other natural disasters,

it can be used to protect individual animals in a controlled enviroment, predation and hunting can be managed more easily,that have left an area, small numbers, difficult and expensice, less successful, many species cant breed successfully in captivity or dont adapt totheir new enviroment when moved to a new location

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Conservation and Biodiversity

What does information about threats to biodiversity need between countries? what do they need to decide? name two examples of successful international cooperation? what does Rio aim to develop? and? what did they make part of the law? what does it provide guidance to? what does CITES stand for? what is it? whats it designed to increase? what did member coutnries all agrre to make illegal? what does the agrrement help to conserve? how? and making what illegal? such as? whats it also designed to raise? of what? through what? why is interantional cooperation really important?

What does EIA stand for? what is it? such as? what does it estimate? and evaluating? whats identifyed? what is also identified? whats decided? what are they? for example? what are local authroties often under? from who? what do they argue? how do they feel? what do enviromental impact assessments ensure? who are they used by? to decide what?

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Pete Langley - Get Revising founder

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