Biology : The Living Body

B5

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  • Created by: Jlen90
  • Created on: 02-02-12 22:08

1. The Skeleton

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE SKELETON?

  • More flexible
  • Framework of the body
  • Grows with body 
  • Easy to attatch muscles

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CARTILAGE AND BONE?

  • Living Tissue
  • Susceptible to infection 
  • Grow and Repair

WHY ARE LONG BONES STRONG?

  • Because they are hollow which makes them stronger than solid bones.

BONE MARROW CONTAINTS BLOOD VESSELS 

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2. The Skeleton

WHAT IS OSSIFICATION?

  • Cartilage in the skeleton slowly changing into bone (The addition of Calcium and phosphorus)

WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?

  • This is when bones become softer and more prone to fractures with age.

WHAT IS CARTILAGE?

  • Acts as a shock absorber

WHAT DOES THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE PRODUCE?

  • Synovial fluid

WHAT DO LIGAMENTS DO?

  • Holds the bone together

SYNOVIAL FLUID LUBRICATES THE JOINT

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3. Circulatory System

DESCRIBE A SINGLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN A FISH

  • Blood passes through heart. ONCE
  • Leaves the heart and picks up Oxygen at the gills.
  • Transports oxygen to the cells of the body.
  • Blood then returns to heart.

FISH HAVE TWO CHAMBERS IN THEIR HEART.

WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF A DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS?

  • Greater rate of blood flow as the blood is pumped around the body under high pressure. The heart has 4 chambers.

WHAT DOES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE DO?

  • Pumps blood to the lungs

WHAT DOES THE LEFT VENTRICLE DO?

  • Pumps blood around the body
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4. Circulatory System Cont.

WHAT DOES THE TRICUSPID VALVE PREVENT?

  • Back flow of the blood

THE LEFT VENTRICLE HAS A THICKER WALL THAN THE RIGHT AS IT NEEDS TO CREATE MORE PRESSURE TO PUMP BLOOD AROUND THE BODY.

HOW IS YOUR HEART RATE CONTROLLED AUTOMATICALLY?

  • By a group of pacemaker cells. These cells produce small electric currents which cause the heart to contract.

NAME THE TWO TYPES OF PMC:

  • SAN & AVN

WHAT DO SAN PACEMAKER CELLS DO?

  • Generate electrical impulses these spread across the atria causing both atria to contract
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5. Circulatory System Continued & The Blood

WHAT DO AVN IMPULSES DO?

  • They spread across the ventricles causing them to contract. Impulses from the sympathetic nerve can modify the action of pacemaker cells.

WHAT IS AN ECG?

  • An ECG shows the changes of electrical impulses in the heart muscle.

WHAT IS CORONARY HEART DISEASE?

  • When the coronary artery becomes blocked meaning the heart muscle is not supplied with enough energy. This can result in a heart attack.

WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS?

  • They are disc shaped and contain haemoglobin to transport oxygen.

WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS?

  • They are founded and product antibodies to engulf and surround bacteria to fight disease.
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6. The Blood Cont.

WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLASMA?

  • Plasma is the liquid part of the blood and is used to transport hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, glucose and amino acids.

WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLATELETS?

  • They are fragments of cells which prevent blood clotting.

NAME THE 4 STEPS OF BLOOD CLOTTING:

  • Skin is cut and blood leaks.
  • Protein in blood called fibrinogen. When platelets come in contact with air they turn this protein into fibrin. The threads make net over the cut.
  • Clot dries to make scab and skin grows underneath.
  • Red blood cells get caught in the net and make a blood clot which seals the cut.

WHAT IS HAEMOPHILIA?

  • It is an inherited disease which means the blood does not clot easily.
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7. The Blood Cont.

TYPE O BLOOD:

  • No antigens on cell membrane but their are antibodies A & B in the plasma.

TYPE A BLOOD:

  • Antigen A on cell membrane & Antibody B in the plasma

TYPE B BLOOD:

  • Antigen B on cell membrane & Antibody A in the plasma

TYPE AB BLOOD:

  • Antigens A & B on cell membrane & no antibodies in plasma

WHAT AFFECT DOES ALCOHOL HAVE ON BLOOD CLOTTING?

  • It slows down blood group clotting

VITAMIN K IS NEEDED FOR BLOOD TO CLOT PROPERLY.

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8. Breathing

EXPLAIN HOW WE BREATHE IN:

  • Intercostal muscles between ribs contract. This moves the ribs up and out.
  • the diaphragm muscle contracts and moves down and the volume of air inside the chest increases.
  • This decreases the pressure inside the chest. The air pressure outside the chest is higher so air enters the lungs.

EXPLAIN HOW WE BREATHE OUT:

  • Intercostal Muscles relax. The ribs move down and in.
  • The diaphragm muscle relaxes and moves up
  • The volume of air in the chest decreases.
  • This increases the pressure inside the chest. The air pressure outside the chest is now lower so air leaves the lungs.

WHAT IS ASBESTOSIS:

  • It is an industrial disease where fibres remain on the surface of the lungs. Symptoms include coughing, breathlessness and chest pains. There is also no cure.
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9. Breathing Continued

WHAT IS CYSTIC FIBROSIS?

  • It is an inherited disease and the cause is genetic. The symptoms include wheezing, breathlessness and coughing. There is no 100% safe cure but lung transplants can be used.

WHAT IS LUNG CANCER?

  • This is an lifestyle disease caused by abnormal cells. The symptoms include coughing, chest pain and weight loss.  There is no 100% safe cure but lung transplants can be used.

HOW DO CILIATED CELLS FIGHT DISEASE?

  • The cilia waft the mucus to the back of the throat.

HOW IS GAS EXCHANGED IN FISH?

  • Oxygen passes over gill filaments that have a large surface area. Gill filaments have a good blood supply.
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10. The Kidneys

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Comments

sara

not finished but was really good :)

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