1. The Skeleton
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE SKELETON?
- More flexible
- Framework of the body
- Grows with body
- Easy to attatch muscles
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CARTILAGE AND BONE?
- Living Tissue
- Susceptible to infection
- Grow and Repair
WHY ARE LONG BONES STRONG?
- Because they are hollow which makes them stronger than solid bones.
BONE MARROW CONTAINTS BLOOD VESSELS
2. The Skeleton
WHAT IS OSSIFICATION?
- Cartilage in the skeleton slowly changing into bone (The addition of Calcium and phosphorus)
WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?
- This is when bones become softer and more prone to fractures with age.
WHAT IS CARTILAGE?
- Acts as a shock absorber
WHAT DOES THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE PRODUCE?
- Synovial fluid
WHAT DO LIGAMENTS DO?
- Holds the bone together
SYNOVIAL FLUID LUBRICATES THE JOINT
3. Circulatory System
DESCRIBE A SINGLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN A FISH
- Blood passes through heart. ONCE
- Leaves the heart and picks up Oxygen at the gills.
- Transports oxygen to the cells of the body.
- Blood then returns to heart.
FISH HAVE TWO CHAMBERS IN THEIR HEART.
WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF A DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN HUMANS?
- Greater rate of blood flow as the blood is pumped around the body under high pressure. The heart has 4 chambers.
WHAT DOES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE DO?
- Pumps blood to the lungs
WHAT DOES THE LEFT VENTRICLE DO?
- Pumps blood around the body
4. Circulatory System Cont.
WHAT DOES THE TRICUSPID VALVE PREVENT?
- Back flow of the blood
THE LEFT VENTRICLE HAS A THICKER WALL THAN THE RIGHT AS IT NEEDS TO CREATE MORE PRESSURE TO PUMP BLOOD AROUND THE BODY.
HOW IS YOUR HEART RATE CONTROLLED AUTOMATICALLY?
- By a group of pacemaker cells. These cells produce small electric currents which cause the heart to contract.
NAME THE TWO TYPES OF PMC:
- SAN & AVN
WHAT DO SAN PACEMAKER CELLS DO?
- Generate electrical impulses these spread across the atria causing both atria to contract
5. Circulatory System Continued & The Blood
WHAT DO AVN IMPULSES DO?
- They spread across the ventricles causing them to contract. Impulses from the sympathetic nerve can modify the action of pacemaker cells.
WHAT IS AN ECG?
- An ECG shows the changes of electrical impulses in the heart muscle.
WHAT IS CORONARY HEART DISEASE?
- When the coronary artery becomes blocked meaning the heart muscle is not supplied with enough energy. This can result in a heart attack.
WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS?
- They are disc shaped and contain haemoglobin to transport oxygen.
WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS?
- They are founded and product antibodies to engulf and surround bacteria to fight disease.
6. The Blood Cont.
WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLASMA?
- Plasma is the liquid part of the blood and is used to transport hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, glucose and amino acids.
WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLATELETS?
- They are fragments of cells which prevent blood clotting.
NAME THE 4 STEPS OF BLOOD CLOTTING:
- Skin is cut and blood leaks.
- Protein in blood called fibrinogen. When platelets come in contact with air they turn this protein into fibrin. The threads make net over the cut.
- Clot dries to make scab and skin grows underneath.
- Red blood cells get caught in the net and make a blood clot which seals the cut.
WHAT IS HAEMOPHILIA?
- It is an inherited disease which means the blood does not clot easily.
7. The Blood Cont.
TYPE O BLOOD:
- No antigens on cell membrane but their are antibodies A & B in the plasma.
TYPE A BLOOD:
- Antigen A on cell membrane & Antibody B in the plasma
TYPE B BLOOD:
- Antigen B on cell membrane & Antibody A in the plasma
TYPE AB BLOOD:
- Antigens A & B on cell membrane & no antibodies in plasma
WHAT AFFECT DOES ALCOHOL HAVE ON BLOOD CLOTTING?
- It slows down blood group clotting
VITAMIN K IS NEEDED FOR BLOOD TO CLOT PROPERLY.
EXPLAIN HOW WE BREATHE IN:
- Intercostal muscles between ribs contract. This moves the ribs up and out.
- the diaphragm muscle contracts and moves down and the volume of air inside the chest increases.
- This decreases the pressure inside the chest. The air pressure outside the chest is higher so air enters the lungs.
EXPLAIN HOW WE BREATHE OUT:
- Intercostal Muscles relax. The ribs move down and in.
- The diaphragm muscle relaxes and moves up
- The volume of air in the chest decreases.
- This increases the pressure inside the chest. The air pressure outside the chest is now lower so air leaves the lungs.
WHAT IS ASBESTOSIS:
- It is an industrial disease where fibres remain on the surface of the lungs. Symptoms include coughing, breathlessness and chest pains. There is also no cure.
9. Breathing Continued
WHAT IS CYSTIC FIBROSIS?
- It is an inherited disease and the cause is genetic. The symptoms include wheezing, breathlessness and coughing. There is no 100% safe cure but lung transplants can be used.
WHAT IS LUNG CANCER?
- This is an lifestyle disease caused by abnormal cells. The symptoms include coughing, chest pain and weight loss. There is no 100% safe cure but lung transplants can be used.
HOW DO CILIATED CELLS FIGHT DISEASE?
- The cilia waft the mucus to the back of the throat.
HOW IS GAS EXCHANGED IN FISH?
- Oxygen passes over gill filaments that have a large surface area. Gill filaments have a good blood supply.