Biology Revision: Carbohydrates,Lipids,Proteins and Enzymes

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Carbohydrates,Lipids and Proteins

Carbohydrates-Made up of units of sugar
If it only contains one or two units of sugar, it is a simple sugar, like glucose and sucrose
Complex carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose are long chains of simple sugars.


Lipids-Three molecules of fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.

Protein Molecules-Long chains of amino acids.These long chains can fold to produce a specific shape that allows other molecules to fit into the protein.

Proteins act as:

  • Structural components of tissues e.g. muscles
  • hormones
  • antibodies
  • enzymes 
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Enzymes are biological catalysts to speed up the rate of chemical reactions.

The shape of an enzyme is crucial to its function, and a high.temp will DENATURE the enzyme changing the shape of the active site.pH will also affect the impact of certain enzymes

Some enzymes work outside the body cells, for example enzymes produced in glands and the lining of the gut move out of these cells into the gut and catalyse the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones.

Microorganisms can produce enzymes which pass out of the cell, and have use in the home and industry. In the home biological detergents can contain proteases and lipases, and in industry proteases can 'pre-digest' baby foods ,carbohydrases convert starch into sugar syrup,and isomerase convert glucose into fructose.

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