Biology module 1


Plasma surface cell

Regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones

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Cell Wall

Supports plant cells

Made from cellulose

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Chromatin is made from proteins and DNA which control the cells activities. The pores in the nuclear envelope allow substances such as RNA to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleolus makes ribosomes.

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Contains digestive enzymes. These are kept seperate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane and can be used to digest invading calls or to break down worn out componants of the cell.

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The site where proteins are made

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Folds and process' proteins that have been made at the ribosomes

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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesises and processes lipids

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Transports substances in and out of the cell (via the plasma membrane) and between organelles. Some are formed by the Golgi Apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum while others are formed at the cell surface. 

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The site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced. They're found in very large numbers in cells that are very active and require a lot of energy.

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Golgi Apparatus

It process' and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysosomes

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The site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts of photosynthesis happen in the grana and other parts happen in the stroma.

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Involved witht the separation of chromosomes during cell division

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The microtubules allow the cilia to move. This movement is used by the cell to move substances along the cell surface.

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The microtubules contract t make the flagellum move. Flagella are used like outboard motors to propel cells forward (eg when a sperm cell swims)

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