Biology GCSE (1)

Cells, Growth and repair and Pattern of Growth


Animal and Plants Cells



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What'S a cell?

Cells are the tiny building blocks that make up all living things

  • Smallest Biollogical Unit
  • The bigger the organism the more cells there are 

What types of cells are there?

  • Skin Cells 
  • Sperm Cells 
  • White blood cells ( quite large + fight diseases )
  • Red blood cells ( Round shape + NO NUCLEUS )
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The Cytoplasm

Is like a jelly, Chemical reactions go 

inside the Cytoplasm. This keeps the cell alive.

 The Nucleus

Controls what the cell does.

If it Contains the instruction

 to make new cells.

 The Cell Membrane

Is a Thin skin around the cell. It gives

its shape and controls what goes into 

or what goes out of the cell.

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The Cell Wall

Covers the thin cell membrane, It is made of tough cellulose which strengthens the cell.

The Vacuole

A plant cell has a large vacuole filled with a liquid called cell sap.

The chloroplast

Are found in cells that carry out Photosynthesis. They contain chlorophyll to trap light energy.

The Cytoplasm

Often contains starch grains.

  • Nucleus
  • Cell membrane 

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Difference between a plant cell and a Animal cell

Plant cell

  • Have tough cellulose cell walls
  • have chloroplast 
  • have a vacuole containing cell sap
  • many have a box like shape 
  • have a nucleus to the side of the cell 
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Difference between a plant cell and a Animal cell

Animal cell

  • do not have cellulose cell walls
  • do not have chloroplast
  • sometimes have a small vacuole but they never contain sell sap
  • shape varies
  • have a nucleus in the middle of the cell
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Their some important functions :

  • has lots of chloroplast for photosynthesis
  • hasn't got a nucleus, as a result carries more oxygen
  • has a large surface area to absorb more nutrients 
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cells of the same kind form a tissue

tissue of different kinds form of organ

organ of different kinds form of system

system of different kinds form of an organism 

organism a living thing

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growth and repair

Diploid-----------> 2 chromosomes

What does growth mean?

Making new cells 

Why is mitosis suitable for growth ?

Produce diploid cells

Identical cells are produced 

---> Bones cells make bone cells

---> Skins cells make new Skin cells

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Patterns of growth

Growth in Animals

limbs grow longer 

more skin is produced 

organs grow

Teeth get replaced 


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Do animals ever stop growing ?

No because........

  • cells are produced all the time and replaced other cells 
  • red blood cells only live for 3 months as a result they need replacing
  • skin cells shed and your body constantly produces more skin cells 
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Growth in plants:

  • Grow taller
  • Grow wider
  • Grows branches
  • Makes new leaves
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Do plants ever stop growing ?

No because........

  • Every year the tree gets wider and produces a new ring
  • They produce leaves that fall in the winter and regrow in the summer.
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Patterns of Growth

The areas on a plant that grow are called meristems.

This is located at the top of roots and shoots.

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Stem Cells

What are stem cells?

These cells in a embryo are called stem cells.A stem cell is a cell which hasn't differentiated/specialized yet. It can be turned into any kind of tissue.

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What diseases can be cured using stem cells?

  • Parkinsons
  • Alzheimers
  • Diabetes 
  • Motor Neurone

What else could cloned embroyes get used for?

  • Testing drugs
  • Alternative to animal testing

What are the tissues surrounding human embryo cloning and the use of their stem cells?

You start by producing an embryo then you're taking it apart which is basically killing it. 

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