Biology - Functions of Cell Components.

The Nucleus

  • Controls cell activities
  • Contains genetic information in DNA of chromosomes
  • Seperated from cytoplasm by nuclear envelope with pores for communication between nucleus and cytoplasm

Nucleolus

  • Production of ribosomes
  • Dark stained area in nucleus

Rough Endoplamic Reticulum:

  • Site for ribosomes
  • Transports proteins to the golgi apparatus
  • Outer surface covered in ribosomes

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:

  • Makes triglycerides (fats)
  • Makes phospholipids
  • Makes cholesterol
  • No ribosomes on surfaces
HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Finlay
  • Created on: 28-11-12 21:05

Functions and Details of the Cell Components

The Nucleus

  • Controls cell activities
  • Contains genetic information in DNA of chromosomes
  • Seperated from cytoplasm by nuclear envelope with pores for communication between nucleus and cytoplasm

Nucleolus

  • Production of ribosomes
  • Dark stained area in nucleus

Rough Endoplamic Reticulum:

  • Site for ribosomes
  • Transports proteins to the golgi apparatus
  • Outer surface covered in ribosomes
1 of 5

Functions and Details of the Cell Components

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:

  • Makes triglycerides (fats)
  • Makes phospholipids
  • Makes cholesterol
  • No ribosomes on surfaces

Golgi Apparatus:

  • Modifies and packages proteins
  • Makes secretory vesicles and lysosomes
  • Vesicles are flat sacs of membranes

Ribosomes:

  • Amino acids are assembled to make proteins
  • They're the site of protein synthesis
  • Found on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum or in the cytoplasm
2 of 5

Functions and Details of the Cell Components

Mitochondria:

  • Carries out aerobic repiration
  • Has a highly folded internal membrane which increases surface area for enzymes.
  • The highly folded membrane is called the cristae and the inside of it is called the matrix.

Lysosomes:

  • Contains enzymes for destroying worn out parts of the cell and food particles
  • Membrane keeps enzymes seperate from the rest of the cell

Chloroplast:

  • Carries out photosynthesis
  • Grana (made from stacks of thylakoids) give a large surface area for chlorophyll
3 of 5

Functions and Details of the Cell Components

Plasma Membrane (a.k.a. Cell Surface Membrane):

  • Regulates movements of substances in and out of the cell
  • Has receptor molecules on it which allows it to respond to chemicals. (eg. hormones)
  • Found on the surface of animal cells
  • Found just inside the cell wall of plant/prokaryotic cells
  • Made up mainly of lipids and proteins

Centrioles:

  • They are small, hollow cylinders
  • Contain a ring of microtubules (tiny protein cylinders) 
  • Assembles microtubules for the cytoskeleton
  • Forms the spindle which moves chromosomes when the nuclei divide
4 of 5

Functions and Details of the Cell Components

Flagella:

  • Found on eukaryotic cells and is like cilia but longer
  • Stick out from the cell surface
  • Surrounded by plasma membrane
  • Inside it are 2 microtubules in the centre and 9 pairs around the edge (9+2 formation)
  • Microtubules contract to make the flagellum move
  • Used like a motor to propel the cell forward

Cilia:

  • Small and hair like
  • Found on the outer surface membrane of some animal cells
  • Formation like flagella ( see above description - 9+2 formation)
  • Microtubules allow movement
  • Moves substances along the cell surface
5 of 5

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »