Biology Flash Cards

Biology revision on cells, and which things do what.

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Upper Epidermis

It protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange and produces the waxy substance that becomes part of the cuticle.

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Lower Epidermis

It serves as protection like skin, and also helps retain moisture.

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Mesophyll is the material that makes up the majority of a plant's leaves. It is a simple fluid that is extremely important and is mostly responsible for making plant life possible.

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The stoma is an opening on the bottom of a leaf which takes in carbon dioxide from the air and releases oxygen and water.

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Cuticle Wax

This is a protective waxy covering produced on the top and bottom of a leaf. The cuticle tends to be thicker on the top of the leaf.

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Palisade Mesophyll

This has cells in which chloroplasts are especially concentrated in, and it is in these cells that much of the photosynthesis in plant takes place.

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Spongy Mesophyll

This consists of irregularly shaped cells. There is air spaces between the cells which allow food-producing cells of the leaf to access the gases so that they can photosynthesis.

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Guard Cell

These help to maintain the right rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata, by doing this, they prevent excessive water loss.

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