Biology B5

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Unspecialised and Specialised Cells

An unspecialised cell is a stem cell

Specialised Cells

  • nerve cells
  • heart cells
  • red and white blood cells
  • cartilage cells
  • bone cells

Cells form tissues

Tissues form organs

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Tissue, Organ, and flower stem parts

Tissue - group of specialised cells of the same type working together to do a particular job

Organ - part of a plant or animal made up of different tissues

Phloem - the tissue in a plant that transports sugar

Xylem - the tissue in a plant that transports water and dissolved nutrients

Cortex - tissue immediately below the epidermis of a stem or root and act as storage tissue

Cambium - a cellular plant tissue from which phloem, xylem or cork grows by division

Epidermis - an outer layer of tissue in a plant

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Plant and Animal Growth

  • Meristem - Animal
  • Stem - Plant
  • Plant - where: tip of stem, tip of the root, cambium
  • Animals - where: everywhere
  • Plants grow throughout their whole lives
  • Animals don't grow throughout their whole lives

Phototropism - the bending of growing plant shoots towards the light

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DNA

Double helix (helix - spiral) Four Bases

  • A (paired with T)
  • T (paired with A)
  • C (paired with G)
  • G (paired with C)

Sugar involved - Deoxyribose

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Mitosis, Meiosis, and Cell Cycle

Mitosis - used to make body cells

Meiosis - used to make gametes (sex cells)

Cell Cycle

  • DNA replication
  • mitosis
  • specialisation
  • cell enlargement and making more organelles
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Cells after Mitosis/Meiosis

Chromosomes in parent cell - 46

Chromosomes in daughter cells - 46

Only human cells

Animal gametes - sperm and ovum (eggs)

3 bases -> 1 amino acids

DNA -> mRNA (m = messenger) -> protein molecule

mRNA bases -> AUCG (U replaces T)

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Totipotent and Pluropotent

Totipotent - these are cells which are fully unspecialised and can produce any type of protein (all genes switched on) e.g. embryonic stem cells

Pluropotent - these are cells where some genes are switched off but the cell still has the abolity to specialise into certain other types of cells e.g. bone marrow cells

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