Biology B5

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  • Humans have an internal skeleton made of living cartilage and bone, both of which can repair themselves
  • The human skeleton starts off as cartilage but becomes ossified (turned into bone) by the addition of calcium and phosphorous
  • Ball and socket joints and hinge joints are synovial joints
  • The biceps and triceps muscles are antagonistic muscles in the arm
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  • Galen realised the importance of the pulse and the heart being a pump.
  • Harvey realised that the blood circulated throughout the body
  • A 'hole in the heart' is a hole between either the two atria or two ventricles
  • Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are mixed up, so the blood carries less oxygen
  • Blood can be donated and transfused
  • A mismatch of blood groups can cause agglutination
  • Humans have a closed, double circulation
  • Fish have a closed, single circulation
  • Drugs sich as warfarin, heparin and aspirin can be used to control clotting
  • Heart rate is linked to activity. Heart muscle contraction is controlled by the pacemakers
  • Some heart problems require a heart transplant, artificial valves or an arificial pacemaker
  • Transplants may cause a rejection reaction and immuno-suppressive drugs are required
  • Supply of donor organs is limited by shortage of donors, tissue match, size and shape of organs.
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  • Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli by diffusion
  • Industrial, genetic and lifestyle choice factors cause lung diseases
  • Methods of gaseous exchange limit amphibians and fish to their habitats
  • Breathing difficulty, wheezing and a tight chest are symptoms of athsma
  • Carbon dioxide is toxic at high levels in the blood
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  • Due to specific enzyme requirements, the stomach contents are acidic and the small intestine is alkaline
  • Small digested food molecules are absorbed into the blood by plasma or lymph
  • Carbohydrase breaks down carbohydrates, protease breaks down protein and lipase breaks down fats
  • Starch is broken down to maltose and then to glucose
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  • Hormones (oestrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH) control the menstrual cycle
  • Foetal development can be checked by amniocentesis and chromosome analysis
  • Human growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland
  • Negative feedback mechanisms control hormone production
  • Different parts of a foetus and baby grow at different rates
  • Life expectancy has increased in recent times
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