Biology B2 - Cells And Transport

B2.1 Cells And Transport

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Functions Of An Animal Cell.

The function of the nucleus is to mainly control the cell and gene expression.

The cytoplasm is where most cellular activities occur such as cell division, it also contains the mitochondria.

The cell membrane surrounds the cytoplasm and protects the cell serving a function similar to that of skin.

Ribosomes are where protein synthesis occurs and they are composed of RNA and protein.

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Chloroplasts And Vacuole Functions.

Chloroplast is where the plant uses photosynthesis to make the energy that the plant needs.

The vacuole has many functions which include removing unwanted structural debris, isolating materials that might be harmful to the cell, containment of waste products, maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell, maintaining an acidic internal pH, containing small molecules, exporting unwanted substances from the cell, enabling the cell to change shape.

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Structure Of A Bacterial Cell.

Bacterial cells have a cell wall. This is similar to a plant cell wall but is more flexible. Bacteria do not have a nucleus. They do have two types of DNA, plasmid and chromosomal. The chromosomal DNA carries most of the genetic information. Plasmid DNA forms small loops and carries extra information. Some bacteria have a flagellum, a whip like tail. This helps the bacteria to move itself along.

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Structure Of A Yeast Cell.

The structure of a yeast cell consists of a nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm and mitochondria.

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Adaptations Of Specialized Animal Cells.

Two examples of specialized animal cells is the sperm cell which is adapted for its job because the head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane.The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.

Red blood cells are adapted for there job because they have a thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. The shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.

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Adaptations Of Specialized Plant Cells.

Two examples of specialized plant cells are the leaf cell which is adapted for its job because it is packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.

Root hair cells are adapted for there job because they have long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.

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Diffusion And Its Importance.

Diffusion is a process where molecules from a highly concentrated area move to a place where there are fewer molecules. It is a spontaneous and automatic process that carries oxygen to the blood in the lungs and oxygen from the blood to the rest of the body tissues.

It is important because the human cell can obtain nutrients and gases, excrete metabolic wastes, maintain a suitable pH and ionic concentration within the cell for enzyme activity.

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Diffusion And Concentration Gradient.

In diffusion the concentration gradient moves from high to low until equilibrium is reached.

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Where Diffusion Takes Place.

Three examples of where diffusion takes place is in your stomach, the particles which move are your digested food products from your stomach to blood in capillary of villus in small intestine. Your lungs, the particals which move are oxygen from alveolar air space to blood circulating around the lungs. Your lungs also move carbon dioxide from blood circulating around the lungs to alveolar air space.

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