Biology B2 and B3

B2 B3

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Animal and Plant Cells Questions

1. Ribosomes are where ______________ takes place? 

2. Mitochondria are structures in where? and what happens there? 

3. Why are chloroplasts green and what do they do?

4. What is cytoplasm needed for?

5. What is the function of the cell membrane?

6. What is a cell wall made from? (part of the answer is in the question) 

7. The permanent vacuole is filled with?

8. Which parts of the cell are found in both animal and plant cells?

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Animal and Plant cell Answers

1. Protein synthesis 

2. Structures in the cytoplasm. It's where most of the enegry is released during respiration. 

3. Because they contain Chlorophyll; They absorb light energy to make food by photosynthesis.

4.  Chemical reactions. 

5. To control substances entering and leaving the cell. 

6. Cellulose 

7. Cell sap. 

8. Ribosomes, mitochondria, nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane 

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Active Transport, Osmosis and Diffusion Questions

1. What is diffusion?

2. What is osmosis? 

3. Active transport is when...

4. Where does the energy required for active transport come from?

5. Osmosis is the movement of water from a ________ concentration to a ________ concentration. 

6. Name the process by which oxygen passes from the air into the blood.

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Active Transport, Osmosis and Diffusion Answers.

1. Diffusion is the net movement of a gas or solute from an area of high concentraion to low concentration. 

2. Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane.

3. Substances need to be transported AGAINST the concentration gradient or membrane from a Low to a high concentration.

4. Cellular respiration 

5. From a High to a low concentration.

6. Diffusion 

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Chromosomes Questions

1. What are chromosomes made from ?

2Every cell in the human body has ___ pairs of chromosomes.

3. This is true of every cell in the body apart from ______. 

4. Chromosomes come in pairs. If you have an ** pair of cells your gender is what?

5. XY cells mean you are a ______. 

6. Cells with 23 pairs of chromosomes are said to be...

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Chromosomes Answers

1. Very long strands of DNA molecules.

2. 23.

3. Gametes or (sex cells) 

4. Female 

5. Male 

6. Homologous 

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Enzymes Questions

1. What is an enzyme?

2. What is their function?

3. Part of the structure of an enzyme has room for other molecules to fit in it, what is it called?

4. What is the name for what has happened to an enzyme when it is destroyed/stops working?

5. What are limiting factors of enzyme action?

6. At what temperature will an enzyme denature?

7. In an experiment why would you boil the milk before starting?

8. What substance would cause yoghurt to thicken?

9. What is the maximum temperature at which bacteria should be grown in a school laboratory?

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Enzymes Answers

1. Biological Catalyst

2. To speed up chemical reactions. 

3. Active site. 

4. Denatured 

5. Temperature and pH

6. Enzymes will denature around 40 degrees and above.

7. To kill of micro-organisms

8. Lactic acid as milk is a product of anaerobic respiration.

9. 25

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Digestion Questions

1. Digestion requires breaking down large ________ molecules in to smaller ________ molecules. 

2. What are carbohyrdases?

3. Name the 3 carbohydrases.

4. Digesting Fat -----> ________

5. Digesting Proteins ------> _________

6. Digesting Carbohydrates ------> _______

7. Where is amylase produced?

8. Where is protease produced?

9. Where is lipase produced?

10. Digestive enzymes work where?

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Digestion Answers

1. Insoluable, soluable 

2. Enzymes which aid digestion

3. Amylase, Protease, and Lipase. 

4. Lipase

5. Protease

6. Amylase 

7. In the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.

8. Stomach, pancreas and small intestine.

9. Pancreas and small intestine. 

10. Outside of you cells. 

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Mitosis Questions

1. Where does Mitosis occur?

2. How many number of cell divisions are there in 

3. Mitosis creates what cells?

4. What is the number of chromosomes in Mitosis?

5. Mitosis produces how many offspring cells?

6. What is Mitosis' function?

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Mitosis Answers

1. All over the body 

2. 1

3. All cells apart from gametes.

4. 46 (diploid) 

5. Produces 2 identical cells 

6. Cellular reproduction and growth. 

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Meiosis Questions

1. Where does Meiosis occur?

2. How many number of cell divisions are there in Meiosis?

3. Meiosis creates what cells?

4. What is the number of chromosomes in Meiosis?

5. Meiosis produces how many offspring cells?

6. What is Meiosis' function?

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Meiosis Answers

1. Sex organs

2. 2

3. Gametes 

4. 23 (haploid)

5. 4 cells. 

6. Sexual reproduction.

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Photosynthesis Questions

1. What is the equation for photosynthesis?

2. Photosynthesis is the process in which plants make ________

3. State the limiting factors of photosynthesis. 

4. What happens if a plant is deprived of magnesium?

5. What happens if a plant is deprived of nitrates?

6. State 3 ways plants are adapted for photosynthesis.

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Photosynthesis Answers

1. Carbon dioxide + water = Glucose + oxygen 

2. Their own food ( glucose ) 

3. Light intensity, carbon dioxide, water availability and temperature. 

4. Leaves will turn yellow because it's needed to make chlorophyll. 

5. It will not grow to very big. 

6. Most leaves are broad so have a larger surface area for light to fall on, 

they have air spaces to allow carbon dioxide in and oxygen out, 

they have veins which bring water to the leaves of the plant

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Aerobic Respiration Questions

1. What is the equation for aerobic respiration?

2. Name the site where respiration takes place

3. What is created in the process

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Aerobic Respiration Answers

1. Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + [energy]

2. Mitochondria

3. Energy

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Anaerobic Respiration Questions

1. What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?

2. What does anaerobic respiration result in?

3. What is oxygen debt?

4. What is anaerobic respiration?

5. Which is more efficient anaerobic or aerobic respiration?

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Anaerobic Respiration Answers

1.Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid.

2. Oxygen Debt

3. The amount of oxygen required to break down all of the lactic acid is called the oxygen debt.

4. Respiration that doesn't involve oxygen. 

5. Aerobic respiration is more efficient.

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Miscellaneous Body Questions

1. What is the job of haemoglobin?

2. Name areas of the body where diffusion can take place.

3. Why are these places so effective for diffusion?

4. What are the lungs made up of and what are they and what are their conditions?

5. Explain how an increase in heart rate helps during exercise.

6. State how micro villi and mitochondria help in active transport.

7. Where is bile produced, and what is its function.

8.What during exercise causes the concentration of carbon dioxide to increase. 

9. Explain how breathing allows large amounts of oxygen to enter the blood.

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Miscellaneous Body Answers

1. To carry oxygen to body cells. 

2. The lungs and the gut 

3. Because of the rich blood supply so digested food molecules are carried away the second it diffuses from one side to the other.

4. Alveoli; tiny air sacs with large surface areas, kept moist, rich blood supply. 

5. The muscles use more energy, helps to removes lactic acid, supplies more oxygen, helps to remove more CO².

6. Microvilli have a large surface area, mitochondria release energy. 

7. Liver, neutralises stomach acid.

8. More energy required, respiration, and CO2 diffuses into blood.

9. Brings more oxygen in to the alveoli/lungs & keeps the O2 level high in the alveoli. 

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Yeast and Ethanol, Biogenesis Questions.

1. Why does yeast grow better in the presence of oxygen?

2. Sometimes yeast respires anaerobically when there is a lack of oxygen, but what is produced?

3. What is Ethanol? and what is this process of anaerobic respiration in yeast cells called?

4. What is the theory of Biogenesis? 

5. Why is using ethanol in car engines more environmentally friendly than petrol?

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Yeast and Ethanol production Answers

1. Because it respires Aerobically so needs oxygen and there are less harmful products.

2. Ethanol. 

3. Alcohol and fermentation. 

4. Biogenesis is the process of lifeforms producing other lifeforms, For Example a spider lays eggs, which develop into new spiders. 

5. Ethanol is renewable, has no effect on global warming, plants photosynthesis takes in CO2, ethanol is carbon neutral. 

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Biogas Questions

1. Name the fuel gas present in Biogas. 

2. Name the process which produces Biogas. 

3. Why do Biogas generators work best in hotter countries?

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Biogas Answers

1. Methane

2. Anaerobic Respiration. 

3. Work best at around 30°C the process would be slower in colder countries .

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The Kidneys Questions

1. Why is glucose found in the blood but not in the urine?

2. List the advantages and disadvantages of a kidney operation over dialysis.

3. The kidneys filter out _____.

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The Kidneys Answers

1. The kidneys filter the blood and then reabsorb glucose, ALL of the sugar is reabsorbed back into the blood by active transport.

2. Advantages; No more time wasted on dialysis, no restricted diet, no build up of toxins. 

Disadvantages; Close tissue match must be found, Risk of complications, i.e leading in death, risk of kidney rejection. 

3. Urea because it is poisonous.

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Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic Solutions

1. What will happen when an animal cell is introduced to a hypotonic solution?

2. What happens when an animal cell is introduced to a hypertonic solution?

3. What happens when an isotonic solution is added to an animal cell. 

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Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic solutions.

1 . Will burst 

2. Shrivel up and die. 

3. Nothing happens as it is the same concentration as the cytoplasm inside the cell.

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