Cells ( animal and plant)
Nucleus - controls the cells activities
Cytoplasm - chemical reations take place
Cell membrane - controls what passes in and out
Mitochondria- energy is release through respiration
Ribsomes- protein synthesis happens
Plant cells also have
Cell wall - used to strengthen cell
Chloroplasts - absorb light energy to make food
Permanent vacuole - filled with cell sap
Diffusion and Osmosis
Osmosis is only associated with water. It is the movemet of water from low concentation to high.
Diffusion spreads gas particles;
They go from high concentration to low concentration
Equation------->carbon dioxide +water= glucose+oxygen
Light (converts it all to glucose)
chlorophyll (found in chloroplasts)
Nitrates make amino acids which form proteins. Proteins help the plant to grow
Magnesium is used for chlorophyll production (yellow leaves without)
What affects photosynthesis?
Protease - Stomach, pancreas and small intestine, it breaks down proteins to make amino acids
Lipase - Pancrease and small intestine they digest lipids(fats) and produce glycerol and fatty acids.
Amylase - produced in small intestine, pancreas and salivary glands, they digest starch and make sugars
Carbohydrase converts starch into glucose syrup
Isomerase converts glucose into fructose
Bile is prodcued in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and released into the small intestine
Controlling body conditions
Humans control blood, sugar, water, ion content and temperature.
Diabetes = a condition in which the pancreas cant produce enough insulin
Body temperature is monitored by receptors in the brain ( thermoregulatory centre)
Human Body Cells
46 chromosomes ----> 23 pairs
Gametes are sex cells with 23 chromosomes
Zygotes have 46 chromosomes
Alleles=variations of genes
Dominant and recessive
Differentiation - cells carry out a specific function. Stem cells have not differentiated
Mitosis = the division of body cells to produce new cells
They are identical to their parent. (identical genetic info)
After fertilisation, a zygote will divide many times through mitosis to form a new cell.
Meiosis - cells in the testes and ovaries divide to produce gametes.