Biology B1

Biology

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Health and Excercise

MALNOURISHMENT
Result of Unbalanced diet
Vitamin Deficiencies
Mineral Deficencies
METABOLIC RATE
The rate at which all chemical reactions take place in the body (in cytoplasm)
It can be changed with changes in activity level
CHOLESTORAL
Fast food is high in cholestarol
It is needed for hormones but too much leads to heart desease
OBESITY
Problems with obesity are: arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart desease
Take in more energy than is used and is stored as fat
Some fat is necessary but too much leads to health problems
STARVATION
Become very thin and immune system is weak

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Healthy Eating

SATURATED AND UN-SATURATED FATS
Fats are solid and saturated which come from animals
Oils are liquid and unsaturated / polyun-saturated which come from plants
BALANCED DIET
The right balance of all the different foods
Carbohydrates for energy
Proteins for growth and repair
Fats as store for energy and repair cells
Vitamins and minerals in small amounts for good health

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Organisms

MRS GREN
Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion and Nutrition

Viruses cannot reproduce or obtain nutrition so may not be alive
Viruses do not reproduce they replicate
All viruses cause desease
Microbes multiply very fast
Most bacteria are harmless

FOOD TESTS
Starch + Iodine Solution = Blue Black
Glucose + Benedict's Solution + Boiling water = Orange
Protein + Copper Sulphate Solution + Sodium Hydroxide Solution = Purpleish
Fat + Ethanol + Water = Cloudy

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Natural Defences

They work by : preventing microbes getting in or killing them if they do
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Antitoxins = Body produces antitoxins to counter toxins from bacteria
Antibodies = They attach to or kill pathogens
DEFENCE AGANST MICROBES
Swallow = stomach acid kills
Inhale = Cilia produces mucous which microbes stick to
Skin = a barrier
Cuts = quickly clotted and a scab forms over
VACCINES
A weakened or dead form of a virus is injected into your body
Anitbodies are made aganst virus which destry it and remember it
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
Requires mutation in the bacteria
Once non mutated bacteria are killed (by antibiotics) the surviving can replicate
ANTIBIOTICS ARE ONLY EFFECTIVE AGAINST BACTERIA

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