Biology B1.1.1 Diet and Exercise

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The four main nutrients

Carbohydrates - For energy

Fats - For energy and insulation

Protein - Builds new cells (cell regeneration)

Fibre - For digestion

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Metabolic Rate

The rate at which chemical reactions take place in the body.

Can be affected by:

  • Disease
  • health
  • age
  • gender
  • inherited factors
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Body Mass

BMI = mass/(height)2

Ways to reduce body mass:

  • surgery
  • exercise
  • balanced diet
  • low fat/ low calorie foods
  • burn more energy than you take in
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Anorexia and Obesity

Anorexia is caused by:

  • excessive exercise
  • undereating
  • laxative intake

Obesity is caused by:

  • overeating
  • lack of exercise
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Type 2 Diabetes and High Blood Pressure

Type 2 Diabetes is caused by:

  • High fat intake
  • High sugar intake (Low glucose levels in the body tell you to restore these levels)

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) is caused by:

  • high salt intake
  • high fat intake
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Cholesterol

A substance which is made in the liver and carried in the blood.

Depends on how well your liver works and on your fat intake.

Can reduce or block your blood flow and increase the risk of heart disease.

Carried in 2 types of lipoproteins, which depend on different types of fats.

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Lipoproteins

High Density Lipoprotein (HDLs) = 'Good' cholesterol

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDLs) = 'Bad' cholesterol

You need a balance of both.

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Fats

Polyunsaturated fat - improve the balance of LDLs and HDLs

Monounsaturated fat - reduces cholesterol and improves balance of LDLs and HDLs

Saturated fat - Increases level of cholesterol

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