What are the two types of cells?
Complete the sentence- Prokaryotic ___ are Prokaryotic ____
What two things makes a prokaryotic cell a prokaryotic cell? Give an exmaple
What are Eukaryotic organisms made up of? What two things make a Eyurkaryotic cell a Eukaryotic cell?
What do both of these cells contain? What does each organelle have?
What are Eukaryotic cells usually more than Prokaryotic?
Draw an animal cell with 11 labels? Draw a plant cell with 15 labels?
Whats the difference between animal and plant cells organelle wise? what are the extra ones?
Eukaryotic and Prokarytic
Single Celled (simple) and smaller, Bacteria
Eukaryotic Cells, Complex and include all plant and animal cells,
Organelles, Specific Function
A bit more complicated,
Plasma (cell surface) membrane, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleolous, Nucleus, Smooth enoplasmic reticulum, mitochondiran, cytomplasm, golgi apparatus, nuclueur envelope, ribosome, lysosome
They have the same organelles but plant cells have a few more, cell wall, plasmodesmata, vacuole, chloroplasts
Eukaryotic Cells and Organelles
Plasma (Cell Surface) Membrane- What cells it found in? found where in animal cells? found where in plant cells? found where in prokaryotic cells?Whats it made of? What are its two functions?
Cell wall- Describe it? what cells it found in? whats it made of? whats its function?
Nucleus- Is it a big or small orgenlle? whast it surrounded by? whatd does that contain? what two things does the nucleus contain? What does chromatin contain? what does the DNA control? What doe the pores allow? give an example? what does the nucleolus make?
Lysosome- Describe it? whats it surrounded by? what doesnt it have? what does it contain ? how are they kept seperate from the cytoplasm? whats its function?
Ribosome- Is it a lagre or smalle orgenlle? where are the two places it is in the cell? whats its function?
Plasma (Cell Surface) Membrane- Animal plant and pro, surface of animal cells, inside the cell wall of plant and pro, made of lipids and proteins, regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell and it has receptor molecules which allow it to respond to chemiclas like hormones
Cell Wall- rigid structure that surrounds plant cells, the charbohydrate cellulose and it supports the plannt cells
Nucleus- Large, nucleur envelope (double membrane), pores, chromatin and nucleoulus, proteins and DNA, controls the cells activities, allow substances to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, RNA, ribosomes
Lysosome- A round orgenlle, membrane, with no clear internal structure, digestive enzymes, membrane, used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell
Ribosome- Small, floats free in cytoplams or attacthed to RER, site where proteins are made
Eukaryotic Cells and Orgenells
Rough Endoplasmic Reitculum- Whats it made up of? whast its surface covered with? Whats its function?
Smooth Endoplsmic Reticulum- Whats it similiar to? whats the difference? Whats its functions?
Vesicle- Describe it? where is it? whats it surrounded by? Whats its function? Via what? Where are the the three places theyre formed?
Golgi Apparatus- Describe it? what are often seen at the edges? whats are its two functions?
Mitochondrian- What shape are they usually? What type of membrane? describe the inner membrane? whats the structure called? whats inside? what does this contain? Whats it the site of? whats produced? what cells are they found in large numbers in? why? Chloroplast, Centriole, Cilia, Flagelum
RER- a system of membranes enclosing fluid filled space, ribosomes, folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes
SER- RER, no ribosomes, synthesises and processes lipids
Vesicle- small, fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm, membrane, transport substances in and out of the cell and between organelles, Plasma membrane, golgi or enoplasmic reticulum while others a the cell surface
Golgi Apparatus- A group of fluid filled flattened sacs, vesicles, processes and packages new lipids and proteins also makes lysosomes
Mitochondrion- Oval shaped, double membrane, is folded to form structures called cristate, matrix, contains enzymes involved in respiration, aerobic respiration, ATP, in cells that are very active as they require more energy which it produces
Eukaryotic Cells and organelles
Chloroplast- Describe it? what cells it found it? what type of membrane surrounds it? what are the membranes inside called? How do these membranes appear in it? what do they form? what are Grana linked together by? what are they like? What this the site of? what parts do photysnthesis happen in? whats stroma?
Centriole- Big or small? Describe it? what do they contain? what are they? whats their function?
Cilia- Big or small? Describe them ? where are they found? what do they have in cross section? What do the microtubles allow?what is this movement used for?
Flagelum- What are they like? where are they? what are they surrounded by? whats inside? what happens when the microtubles contract? what are they used like? give an example?
Chloroplast- Small, flattened structure, plant cells, double membrane, thylakoid membranes, they are stacked up in some parts of the chloroplast, grana, lamellae which are thin, flat pieces of thylaoid membrane, photsynthesis, Grana or stroma, a thick fluid found in chloroplast
Centriole- Smallow, hollow cylinders which contain a ring of microbtubles, tiny protein cylidners, involved in the seprationof chromosomes during cell division
Cilia- Small, hair like structures found on the surface membrane of animal cells, they have an outer membrane and a ring of nine pairs of protein microtubles inside witha single pair in the middle, allows movemnet, is used by the cell to move substances along the cell surface
Flagellum- Like cilia but longer, they stick out from the cell surface and are surrounde by the plasma membrane, two microtubles in the middle and nine pairs aorund the edge, the flagellum move, used like outboard motors to propel cells forward, sperm
Organelles Working Together
What production are Organelles involved in?
Where are proteins made? What happens to the proteins that are made by the ribosomes at the RER? what happens to the ones that are free in the cytoplasm?
What happens to new proteins at RER? give an example?From there where are they transported? in what? What happens at the golgi apparatus? Give an example? What do the proteins enter more of? then? Give an example?
What are organelles in the cekk surrounded by? What network does the cytoplasm have? what are they called? In eukaryotic what are they arranged as?
What are the four main functions of the cytoskeleton? give exaample if needed
Ribosomes, That are excreted or attached to the cell membrane, they make proteins that stay in the cytoplasm
Folded and processed like sugar chains are added, then transported to Golgi in vesicles, here they undergo more processing like sugar chains are trimmed or more is added, they enter more vesicles to be transported around the cell like glycoporteins found in mucus move to the cell surface and are secreted
Cytoplasm, a network of protein threads called the cytoskeleton, as microfilaments (small solid strands) and microtubles (tiny protein cylnders)
Microtubles and microfilaments support the cells organells keeping them fixed in position, they strengthen the cell mainitng its shape, responsibl for the transportation of materials within in the cell e.g. movement of chromosomes when theys serpeate in cell divison as it depends on the contraction of microtubles iin the spindle, the proteins of the cytoskeleton can also cause the cel to move e.g. movement of cilia and flagella is caused by the cytoskeletal protein filaments that run through them so in singles cells like seprm the cytosketon propels the whole cell
Whats bigger prokaryotes and eukaryotes? give sizes?
Describe eithers DNA?
Describe each nucleus?
Which have cell walls? made of what?
Which have more organelles? which have mitochondria?
Size of ribosomes?
Give example of each type?
What does the size of prokaryotes mean? what microscope is needed?
Draw a prokaryotic cell? 6 labels
Eukaryotes, Pro 2(symbil) diamtere and Euk 2-200 (symbol) diameter
DNa is circular (PRO) and DNA is linear (EUK)
No nucleus DNA is free in cytoplasm (PRO) and Nucleus present (DNA inside)
(PRO) cell wall made of polysaccharide no cellulose or chitin and (EUK) no cell wall in animal cells however cellulose cell wall in plants or chitin cell wall in fungi
(PRO) Few organelles no mito and (EUK) many organelles with mito
(PRO) Small ribosmoesm and (EUK) large ribosomes
E.Coli Bacterium (PRO) and (EUK) Human liver cell
It means normal microscopes arent powerful enough to look atheir internal structure so an electron microscope is needed
What are the two types of membrane? What are the membranes at the surface called?
Name the three things Plasma membranes do? what allows the movement of substances? what does this mean? Name the three wasy susbstances can move across the plasma membrane? Give an example of recognition by other cells?
What do membranes within a cell surround? what does this divide the cell into? what do this do? give an example?
What are some membranes within the cell like? what two things does this do? Give an example? Why? What can membranes within cells form? what do they do?
What do they control substance wise? give an example?what allows this?
Membranes at the surface of cells and membranes within the cell, PLASMA Membranes
They control what substances enter and leave the cell, they allow recognition by other cells and they allow cell communication, partially permeable membrane, they let some molcules through but not others, diffusion, osmosis or active transport, the cells of the immune system,
Organelles, compartments, makes different functions more efficient, the substances needed fir respiration (like enzynes) are kept tgether inside mitochondria
Folded, increases surface area and maing chenicla reactions more efficient, the inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains enzymes needed for respirtation as it increases surface area which increases the number of enzymes present and makes repsiration more efficient
Vesciles to transport substacnes between different areas of the cell,
Which ones enter and leave the organelle, RNA leaves the nucleus via the nuclear membrane, partially permeable
Why is the structure of almost all membranes the same? What are lipids mainly? what are chrabohydrates usually attatched to?
What was suggested in 1972? what did it describe?
What do phosphlipid molecules form? whats the double layer called?
What is the bilayer like? why?
Whats present in the bilayer? whats scattered in the bilayer? whats this like?
What do some proteins have attacthed? what are they? what are these called?
What do some lipids have atatcthed? whats this called?
Draw a fuid mosaic model
AS they are composed of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, phospholipids, proteins or lipids
The fluid mosiac model, the arrangement of molecules in the membrane
A continous double layer, bilayer
Fluid, because the phospholipids are constantly moving
Cholestrol, Protein molecules, like tiles in a mosaic
Polysacchardie chain, carbohydrates, glycoproteins
Polysaccharide chain, glycolipids
What do Phospholipid molecules have? what does the head attract? whats this called? what does the tail repel? whats this called? What do the molecules automatically do? why? Whats the centre of the bilayer? what does this mean? example? what does it act as? draw a phospholipid
Whats cholestorl a type of? How many membranes is it present in? excpet what? wheres the cholestoral? what do they bind to? what does this cause? what does this do for the membrane?
What do some proteins in the membrane form? what does it allow? what are other proteins called? what do they do? what two ways? What do proteins also act as? in what? give example of molecule? what happens when a molecule binds to the protein?
What do glycolipids and glycoproteins do? how? what are they also sites for? what do they act as in what? what are they also?which do what?
Head and a tail, hydrophilic, it attarcts water, hydrophobic, repels water, arrange themselves into a bilayer as the head faces out (attracted) to the water either side, hydrophobic, the membrane doesnt allow water-soluable substances through, like ions, a barrier
Lipid (fat), in all except bacterial cell membranes, fit between the phospholipids, they bind to the hydrophobic tail of the phospholipids, causes them to pack more closely together, makes it less fluid and more rigid
Channels which allow small or charged particles through, carrier proteins, which transport molecules and ions across the membrane by active transport and facilitated diffusion, receptors for moleculse in cell signalling, hormone, a chemical reaction is triggered inside the cell
Stablise the membrane by forming hydrogen bonds with surrounding water molecules, where drugs, hormoness and anitbodies bind, recpeptors for cell signalling, antigens which are cell surface molecules involved in the immune response
Why do cells need to communicate with each other? to do what? what do cells use to communicate with each other? whats the three steps? use examples?
What is important in the signalling process? what act as receptors for messenger molecules? What do receptor proteins have? what can bind to these? what do diferent cells have? so what do they respond to? what is a target cell?
Give an example?what is glucagon? whens it released? what does it bind to? causing what?
What also binds to cell receptors in cell membranes? What two reasons do they do this?
Give example? what does cell damage cause? what does histamine bind to? causing? How do Antihistamines work? preventing?
To control processes inside the body to respond to changes in the enviroment, messenger molecules, 1) one cell releases a messenger molecule e.g. hormone 2) the molecule traves to another cell e.g. blood 3) the messenger molecule is detcted by the cell because it binds to a recotor on its cell membrane
Cell membrane, membrane bound proteins, specific shapes which only messenger molecules with a complementary shape can bind to, have different typse of receptors therefore they respond to different messenger molecules, a cell that responds to a particular messenger molecule
Glucagon, is a hormone thast released when there isnt enough glucose in the blood, binds to recptors on liver cells casuing the liver cells to break down stores of glycogen to glucose
Drugs, either to trigger a response in the cell or block the recptor and prevnt it from working,
Antihistamines, causes the release of histamine, which biinds to receptors on the surface of other cells and causes inflammation, they block histamine recepors on cell surfaces, histimine from binding to the cell and stops inflammation
What can temperature affect in the membrane? what does this affect?
Below temp 0- how much energy do the phospholipids have? so how much can they move? how packed togetehr are they? whats the membrane like? what happens to channel proteins and carrier proteins? what does this increase? what may form? what happens when it thaws?
Between temp 0-45- Can the phospholipids move? are they packed closely? whats the permeability of the membrane? What happens to movement as temp increases? why? what does this increase?
Temp above 45- What happens to the bilayer? what happens to the membrane? what happens to water in the cell? what does this cause? what happens to channel proteins and carrier proteins? what does this mean? what does it do to permeability?
Effects movement, which affects the membranes structure
Have low energy, cant move very much, packed closely together, rigid, begin to denature, increases the permeability, ic crystals which pierce the membrane making it highly permeable when it thaws
Can move around, arent packed together, partially permeable, they move more, as thye have more energy, increases permability
Starts to melt (breakdown), becomes more permeable, expands putting pressure on the membrane, denature so cant control what comes in and out the cell, increases permeability
Transport across cell membrane
What does passive transport mean? Name 3 types?
What is diffusion the passive moment of?
Complete- Diffusion is the ____ movement of _____ from an area of ____ concentration to an area of _____ concentration? give two examples of the particles?
What ways will molecules diffuse? where will the net movement be? when does it continue till? what is the concentration gradient? how did particles diffuse in regards to the concentration gradient? What sort of process is diffusion? why? what can particles diffuse across? when? give an example?
Name the three factors that the rate of diffusion depends on? the higher the concentration gradient the...? what does the thinner the excange surface really mean? what does this mean for diffusion? what could large surface area mean? what does it mean for diffusion if its larger?
No energy is involved in the process, diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion
net particles higher lower, molecules ions
Both, will be to the area of lower concentration, until particles are evenly distributed throughout the liquid or gas, is the path from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, down, passive process as no energy is needed for it to happen, plasma membranes, as long as they cn move freely through the membrane, for example oxygen and caron diocide molecules are small enough to pass easily through spaces verween phospholipids
Concentration gradient, thickness of the exchange surface, surface area, faster the diffusion rate, i.e. the shorter the distance the particles have to travel, the faster the rate, the cell membrane, faster the rate of diffusion
Transport across cell membranes
What is osmosis? what sort of membrane? what is the term for higher conecntration of water molecules? What sort of poetntial is osmosis from what to what? what is water potential? what type of water has the highest water potential? what have lower?
Whats the process of water moving in and out the cell? How much moves in and out depends on what? what do animal and plant cells behave differently in?
What is a hypotonic soloution? what is the net movement of an animal cell here? what happens to the animal cell? what is the net movement in a plant cell here? what happens to the vacuole? causing what? what happens to the cell?
What is isotonic soloution? what are the water molecules doing here with an animal cell?what happens to the cell? what happens to the water molevules here with a plant cell? what happens to the cell?
what is a hypertonic soloution? what is the net movement here with an animal cell? what happens to an animal cell? What is the net movement here with a plant cell? what does the cell become? what happens to the cytoplasm and the mmebrane? whats this called?
Diffusion of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, higher water potential, highe to lower water potential, it is the potential (likelihood) of water molcules to diffuse out of or into a soloution, pure water, soloutions
Osmosis, water potential of the surrounding soloution, soloutions
Solouton with a higher water potential than the cell, is into the cell, the cell bursts, into the cell, vacuole swells so the vacuole and cytoplasm push against the cell wall causing it to becoem turgid (swollen),
soloution with the same water potential as the cell (isotonic soloution), water molecules pass into and out of the cell in equal amounts, cell stays the same, water moelcuels move in and out in equal amounts, cell stays the same
Soloution with a lower water potential than the cell, is out of the cell, the cell shrinks, is out of the cell so it becomes flaccid (limp) the cytoplasm and membrane pull away from the cell wall its called plasmolysis
Transport across cell membranes
Name two things that cant diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane? give examples? what do they diffuse through instead? where? which do carrier proteins and channel proteins faciliate large molecules or charged? whats this called? do particles move up or down the concentration gradient? what type of process is it? why?
What do carrier proteins move? up or down the concentration gradient? what do different carrier proteins do? what are the three steps?
What do channel proteins form? what for? up or down concentration gradient? what do different channel proteins do?
What does active transport use? to do what? across what? against what? what does it involved?
whats the process like? whats the difference? whats the source? what may use active transport?
Larger molecules (amino acids, glucose) and charged atoms (chloride ions), carrier proteins or channel proteins in the cell membrane, Carrier proteins- large molecules and channel proteins - charged particles, facilitated diffusion, down higher to lower, passive process as it doenst use energy
Larger molecules into or out of the cell, down, facilitate the diffusion of different molecules, 1) first a large molecules attaches to a carrier protein called the binding site 2) then the protein changes shape 3) this release the molecule on the opposite side of the membrane,
Pores in the membrane, for charged aprticles to diffuse through i.e. down the gradient, facilitae the diffusion of different charged particles,
Energy, to move molecules and ions across a plasma mebrane, against a concentration gradient, carrier proteins,
Facilitated diffusion, is that energy is used to move the solute against its concentration gradient, ATP,Calcium
Transport across Cell membranes
Why cant some molecules be taken into a cell by carrier proteins? name 3? What can happen instead? what does the membrane then do? forming what? containing wwhat? whats this called? Giive an example of when cells also take in lagrer object s by endocytosis?
Name three substances that need to be released from the cell? whats the process called? Where are these substances contained? what do they do? from what? where do they move towards? what do the vesicles do there? and then? Not all the substances leave where do they go? give an example?
As they are to large, proteins lipids some carbohydrates, a cell can surround a substance with a section of its plasma membrane, the membrane then pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell containg the ingested substances, endocytosis, White blood cells mainly phagocytes use endocytosis to take in things like microorganisms and dead cells so that they can destory them
Digestive enzymes, hormones and lipids, exocytosis, vesciles, they pinch off from the sacs of the golgi apparatus and move towards the plasma membrane, the vesicle fuses with the plasmma mebran and release their contents outisde the cell, they are inserted straight into the plasma membrane like plasma proteins
What does every organism need to do? Name two thinsg do they need to take in? name the process? Name two things they need to excrete? Give example? How easy the exchange of substances depends on what?
What has a bigger surface area relative to its volume a mouse or a hippo? Prove it with cubes?
What does an organism have to supply every one of its cells with? give examples? for what process? what does it also need to do? to avoid what?
In single celled organisms how can they diffuse? across what? describe the diffusion rate? why?
Descruve tge diffusoon rate in multicelluar animals? across what? what are the two reasons?
What do multicelluar aniaml therefore need? Example?
Exchange things with its enviroment, Oxygen (aerobic respiration) nurtrients, waste products (carbon dioxide) and urea, on the organisms surafce area to volume ratio
Mouse, figure out volume then total surface area then to figure out surface area to voulme ratio divide the surface area by the volume
Substances, glucose and oxygen for respirtation, remove waste products to avoid damaging itself,
Diffuse directly into or out of the ell across thhe cell surface membrane, quick due to the small distances the substances have to travel
Too sloo as some cells are deep within the body so theres a big distance between them and the outside enviroment and larger animals have a low surface area to volume ratio so its difficult to exchange enough substances to supply a large volume of aniaml through a relativly small outer surface
Specialised exchange organs, lungs
What happens to air as you breathe in? what does the trachea split into? how any? wheere do they lead? what do they branch fo into? what are they calleD? what do they end in? what are these called? what happens at the alveoli? What three things work together to move air in and out? Draw the lungs with 8 labels
How many alvelio in the lungs? are they the gas exchange surface? what are they made of? what are they arranged in? where? what are they surrounded by? what does this give?
What diffuses out of the alveoili? across what? into what? what is the capillary endothelium? What diffuses into the alveoili from the blood? what does it cross? after entering the alveloar space what happens to it?
Air enters the trachea (windpipe), the trachea splits into two bronchi each bronchus leading to a lung, each bronchus branches of into smaller tubes called bronchioles, which end in small air sacs called alveoli, gas exchange, ribcage intercostal muscle and diaphragm
Millions, yes, a single layer of thin flat cells called the alveolar epithelium, bunches at the end of the bronchioles, a network of capillaries giving each one its own blood supply,
0xygen, alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium into the haemoglobin in the lood, its a type of epithelium that forms the capillary wall, Co2, crossing rthe capillary endothelium then the alveolar epithelium, its breathed out
The Gaseous Exchange system
What are the lungs adapted for?
What three things do most gaseous exchange surfaces have in common? how for each?
what do the lungs have to make this happen?
What do goblet cells do? what do cilila do? what does this prevent? where are elastic fibres found? what process do they help? how?
Where is smooth muscles found? what does it allow? what does it do in execise? what does this mean?
Where are rings of cartiliage found? what do they do? describre them? what does it stop?/
Efficient Gaseous Exchange
Large surface area increases the rate of diffusion, thin often one layer of epithilieal cell as it provides short diffusion pathway across the exchange system increases the rate of diffusion, maintains a steep concentration gradient across the surface which increases the rate of diffusion
Many alveoli provide the large SA, alveolar eputhelium and capillary epithelium are only once cell thick giving the short pathway, all alveoil have good blood supply maintaing the gradient and breathng in and out refreshes the air in the alveoli
secrets mucus which traps dust and microorganisms from the inahled air stopping it from reaching the alveoil, beat mucus moving upwards away from alveoli towards the throat where its swallowed, prevemts lung infection, trachea bronchi bronchioles and alveoli, breathing out, breathing in makes lungs inflate and elastic fibres stretch then recoil to hep push air out,
walls of trachea bronchi bronchioles allows diameter to be controlled, during exercise the smooth muscle relaxes making the tubes wider, meaning less resisitance to airflow as it moves in and out easier
Trachea and bronchi, provides support, strong flexible, stops it from collapsing when you breat in and the presssure drops
The Gaseous Exchange System
Draw trachea, brocnhi, broncohiole (larger, smaller, smallest), alveoli
Answer wether their is cartilahe, smooth muscles, elastic fibre, goblet cell and epithelium for all the above
Trachea, large c shaped pieces, smooth muscles, eelastic fibres and ciliated
Bronchi,smaller pieces, smooth muscles, elastic fibres, goblet cells and ciliated
Larger bronchiole, no cartilage, smooth muscles, elastic fibres, goblet cells, ciloated
Smaller bronchiole, no cartilage, smmoth muscles, elstic fibres, no goblet cells, ciliated
smallest bronchiole, no cartilage, no smooth muscle, elastic fibres, no goblet cells, no cillia
alveoli, no cartilage, no smooth muscle, elastic fibres, no goblet cells, no cillia
What is ventialation? what two things does this consist of? what are they? what movememnt of three things is it controlled by?
In inspiration what contracts first? what doest this cause to move upwards and outwards? what does it do to the diaphragm? what does it do to the thorax? what is the thorax? as the volume of the thorax increases what happens to the lungs? whats this below? what does this cause? what process is inspiration? what does this mean?
In Expiration what relaxes? what moves downwards and inwards? what does the diagphram do? what happens to the thorax? causing what to increase? whats this above? what happens to air? what sort of process is it? what does this mean?
whats is TV? what does it mean? figure? whats vital capicity? whats breathing rate? how long? whats oxygen uptake? give example?
Is breathing in and out, inspiration and expiration, breathing in and out, movement of the diaphragm, intercostal muscles and ribcage
Intercostal and diaphragm, causing the ribcage to up and out, diahrpgrahm flattens, increases volume of thorax, the space where the lungs are, lung pressure decreases, bleow atmospheric pressure, causes air to flow into the lungs, active proess requires energy
Intercostal and diaphragm muscles, ribcage moves down and in, diahpgram becomes curved, thorax volume decreases casuing the air pressure to increase above atmopsheric, air is forced out of the lungs, passive process doesnt require energy
Tidal volume, the colume of air in each breath, about 0.4dm3, the maximum volume of air that can be breathed in or out, how many breaths are taken usually in a minute, the rate at which a person uses up oxygen e.g. number of dm3 per min
What can be used to investigate breathing? what is a spirometer? what does it give?
What does a spirometer have? what does the person do? whats this connected to? what happens as the person breathes in and out? what are they recorded by? whats it attached to? what does it write on? what does it create? whats the soda lime for?
What happens to the total volume of gas over time? why? what absorbs the co2? meaning? what uses up the oxygen? what happen to the total volume?
What does a 1 peak represent on data from spirometer? whats represents tidal? what represents vital capiticity? what represents oxygen consumption?
Spirometer, a machine that can give readings on tifal volumle, vital capicity, breathing rate and oxygen uptake
Oxygen filled chamber with a movable lid, breathes through a tube connect to the oxygen chamber, the lid of the chamber moves up and down, pen attatched to the lid of the chamber, on a roatting drum creating a spirometer, absorbs the co2
it decreases, the air thats breathed out is a mixture of oxygen and co2, absorbed by lime, their is only oxygen in the chamber which the subject inhales from, respiration, decreases
1 breath, is the size of one peak, size of the largest peak, decrease in the colem of gas in the chamber it can be read by taking the average slope of the trace
The Circulatory System
What do multicellular organisms need? How do single celled organisms get needed substances? why is it harder for multicelluar? give an example of a multicelluar organism? what does it mean if mammals are vey active? so what do they need? what do they have? what do tranpsort systems assure what is it in mammals? what does it use to carry glucose and oxygen? what does it also carry? for what?
What type of circulatory system do fish have? mammals? what happens in a single circulatory system? what happens in a double circulatory system?
In fish where does the heart pump blood? to pick up what? then where?
In mammals how is the heart divided? what it like? where does the right side of the heart pump blood to? to do what? where does it travel to from the lungs? what side does it enter when it returns? whats the system that delievers to the lungs? what about the one to the body? whats the advantage of the mammals double circulatory system?
Transport systems, by difffusion across their outer membrane, relativly big and have a low surface area to volume ratio, mammal, they have a large number of cells that are respiring very quicklyso they need a constant rapid supply of gluvose and oxygen, transport system, that every cell has a good enoug supply, circulatory system, blood, hormones antibodies to fight disease and waste like co2
Single, double, blood only passes through the hear once for each complete circuit of the blood and double the blood passes through the heart twice for each compelte circuit
Pumps blood to the gills to pick up oxygen then to the rest of the body to deliever the oxygen
Divided downt he middle, two hearts joined, pumps oxygen to the blood to pick up oxygen, then it travels to the left side to be pumped to the rest of the body, the right side, pulmonary, systemic, the heart can give blood an extra push between the lungs and the rest of the body so it travels faster so oxygen is delievred to the tissyes more quickler
The Circulatory System
circulatory systems can be ___ or _____
What falls under vertebres? do they have opned or closed circulatory systems? why? the heart pumps blood into what? what do they branch out into? how many? substances like oxygena nd glucose diffuse from the blood in the capilliaries to what? what happens to the blood? what takes the blood back to the heart?
What have open circulatory system? why? what are their hearts like? what does it do? where does it pump blood? what does that artery open up into? where does the blood flow? making its way wheere? through what? what does the circulatory system supply the insects cells with? what does it transport? what doesnt it supply cells with? whats that done by?
Open or closed
fish and ammals, closed, the blood is enclosed inside blood vessels, arteries, capilliaries, millions, into the body cells, the blood stays inside the blood vessels as it ciculates, veins,
Some invertebress like insects, blood isnt enclosed in blood vessels all the time instead it flows freely through the body cavity, segemented, contracts luike a wave, starting from the back pumping blood into a single maina rtery, body cavity, flows around the insects organs making its way back to the hear segements, valves, nutrients, hormones, oxygen, system of tubes called the tracheal system
Learn labels for internal and external structure of the hearrt
What does the antroventricular valve link? what do teh semi-lunar valves link? what do they stop? how many ways do valaves open? what depends on them being open or closed? what does it mean if there higher pressure behind a valve? what does it mean if theirs higher pressure in front of the valve?
What is the heart mainly? what happens when it contracts? enough to do what? how many heart chambers? what do each of them have? if the muscle does more work what does it need more of? what does this mean about its size?
Whats thicker the left or right ventricle? why? what has thicker walls ventricles or atria? why?
atria to the ventricles, ventricles to the pulmonary artery and aorta, they stop blood flowing from the wrong way, valves only open on eway, relative pressure of the heart chambers, its forrced open, its forced shut,
muscle, creates higher pressure, enough to force blood all the way around the body, four chambers, different function, the more muscle it needs, the thicker it is
Left ventricle, because it needs to contract powerfully to pump blood all the way round the body whereas the right side only needs to get blood to the lungs which are nearby, venturkces because they have to push blood out of the heart whereas the atria just need to push blood a short distance into the ventricles
What is the cardiac cycle an ongoping sequence of? of what? what does it keep? what changes as they contract and relax? what does this alter? what does this cause? directing what? where? what are the three stages it can be simplified to?
At stage 1 what relaxes? what fills with blood?what decreases? what icnrease? what does the higher pressure in the atria cause? allowing blood to flow where? what contracts? what decreases? what increases? forcing what? where?
At stage 2 what contracts? what relaxes? wheres the pressure higher in the ventricles or atria? what closes? to prevent what? what does the high pressure in the ventircles cause? what is forced out? into what?
At stage 3 what relaxes? what increases? what lowers? in what? wheres the pressure high? what does this cause? what does this prevent?what fills with blood? due to what? where? what happens next?
Contraction and relaxation, atraia and ventricles, keeps blood continously circulating around the body, the volume opf the atria and ventricles, altering the pressure in each chamber, valved to open and close, blood flow through the heart, 1)ventricles relax, atria contract, 2) ventricles contract, atria relax, 3) ventricles relax, atrai relax
Ventricles, the atria, decreases their volume and increases the pressure, atrioventrciular valves to open allowing the blood to flow into the ventricles, the atria then contract decreasing their colume and increasing their pressure further, forcing remaing blood out
Ventricles, atria, ventricles, atrioventircular valves vlose to prevent backflow, semilunar valves, pulmonary artery and aorta
ventricles and atria, increasing volume and lowering pressure in the heart chambers, pulmonary artery and aorta, causes the semilunar valves to close, preventing backflow, atria, higher pressure in the vena cava and pulmonary vein, the cycle starts again
What controls the regular beating of the heart? what does it mean that the caridac muscle (heart) is myogenic? what does this patternt of contractions control?
Where does the process start? whats the acronym? where is it located? What does the SAN act like? what does it do? how? what does this cause? what do the band of non-conducting collagen tissue? what happens instead? what is the AVN responsible for? what is there before the AVN reacts? why? what is the bundle of his? what are they responsible for? what are they called? what do the purkyne tissues carry? where? what does it cause? from the bottom ____?
Cardiac Muscles, it can contract and relax without recieving signals from nerves, the regular heartbeat
Sino-atrial node, SAN, in the wall of the right atrium, a pacemaker, it sets the rhytm of the heartbeat by sending out regular waves of electrical acticity to the atrial wall, right and left atria to contarct at the same time, prevnets the waves of elextrcial activity from being passed directly from the atria to the ventricles, the waves of electrical activity are transsferred from the SAN to the antrioventricular node, AVN, its responisble for pasing the waves of electricl acitivty onto the bundle of his, a slight delay, to make sure the ventirlces contract after the atria have emptied, is a group of muscle fibres responisible for conducting the waves of electrical activity to the finer muscle fibres in the right and left ventricle walls, purkyne tissue, carries the waves of electrical activity into the muscular walls of the right and left ventircles causing them to contract simultaneously, up
What does an Electricardiograph record?
What does a electrocardiaraph check? what is it? what does it mean when the heart depolairses? when does it do this? what does it do when it relaxes? what do this mean? what does the relectrocarigraph do? how?
What do blood vessels transport? where? What are the three types of blood vessels?
Where do arteries carry substances from to where? what are their wall size? describe? what do they have? why do they need it? whats the endothelium? whats it like in arteries? what does this allow? what type of blood do they carry? excpet which artery? what does that carry?
What do arteries branch into? are they the largest or the smallest? what substances do they exchange? what do they exchange with? what are they adapted for? give an example? what do they connect to?
Where do veins take blood? under what pressure? are they wider or thinner than arteries? do they have elastic or muscle tissue? do they have valves? how is blood flow helped? what type of blood do they carry? why? excpet for what vein? which carries what?
Substances around the body, arteries, capillaries veins
blood from the heart to the rest of the body, walls are thin, muscular and have elastic tissue, to cope with the pressure produced by the heartbeat, is the inner lining, its folded allows the artey to expand and to cope with the high pressure, caarry oxygfenated blood expect the pulmonary artieries which take deoxuygenaed blood to the lungs
Capillaries, smallest, glucose and oxygen between cells and capillaires, efficient diffusion, their walls are only once cell thick, veins
take blood back to the heart, low pressure, wider, little elastic or muscle tissue, contain valves, contraction of the body muscles surrrounding them, carry deoxygenated blood as its been used ub by the body cells, except pulmonary veins which carry oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs
What is tissue fluid? whats it made from? give example? what do cells take in from where? what do they release? Whats a capillary bed? what moves out of the capillary bed innto where? via what?
Where is the pressure greater in the capillary bed than the tissue fluid? whats that near? What does this difference in pressire cause? what does this form? what happens as fkluid leaves? so where is pressure low? whats that near? what does the fluid loss cause? what does some water do?via what?
What happens to excess tissue fluid?
Is the fluid that surrounds the cells in tissues, substances that leave the blood, oxygen water nutrients, oxygen and nutrients from tissue fluid, metaboilc waste, a network of capillaires in an area of tissue, subsatnces move out into tissue fluid, pressure filtration
At the start of the capillary bed near the arteries, forces fluid out of the capillaries and into spaces around the cells forming tissue fluid, pressure reduces in the capillaries so the pressure is lower at the end of the capillary bed near the veins, the water potential at the end of capillaries near the veins is lower than the water potential in the tissue fluid, some water reenters the capillaries from the tissue fluid at the vein end by osmosis
Does all the tissue fluid re enter the capillaires? some excess tissue fluid is ___ ___, what happens to it eventually? through what system? whats it like? whats it made up of?
What are the smalles lymph vesels? where does excess tissue fluid pass?whats it called when its inside? what do vavlves in the lynmph vessels stop? where does lymph gradually move? wheres that? what happens to it when their?near what?
Whats tissue fluid formed from? what is lymph formed from?
For blood, tissue fluid and lymph:
Which one has red blood cells? why dont they have it? which one has white blood cells? where are white blood cells mostly? when are they in tissue fluid? which ones have platelets? when are they in tissue fluid? which ones have proteins? why mostly in the blood? which ones have water? which ones have higher water potential? which ones have dissolved solutes? can they move freely? give e.g?
No, left over, returned to the blood, lymphatic system, drainage system, lymph vessels
lymph capillaries, into the lymph vessels, lymph, stop lymph going backwards, the main lymph vessel in the thorax, in the blood near the heart
Blood, Tissue fluid,
Blood, red blood cells are to big to get through the capillary walls into tissue fluid, blood tissue fluid(very few) lymph, lymph system, when theirs infection, blood, if capillaries are damaged, blood tissue fluid(very few) lymph (antibodies), to big to get through capillary wall, blood tissue fluid lymph, tissue fluid and lymph, blood, tissue fluid and lymph, move freely, salt
Whats oxygen carried round the body as? what do red blood cells contain? whats the sign? is haemoglobin smalle or large? what is it? what structure does it have? what does this mean?how many does it have? what does each chain have? what does it contain? what does this give? what does Haemoglbin have high of? what does affinity mean? how many molecules of oxygen can it carry? what happens in the lungs? what does this form? what type of reaction is this? how? whats the formula?
What does haemoglobin saturation depend on? whats the sign for the partial pressure of oxygen? whats it a measure of? what does it mean for partial pressure if the concentration of dissolved oxygen in cells is greater? whats the sign for partial pressure of carbon dixoide? whats that a measure of? what does the variation of haemoglboins affinty for oxygen depend on? why? where does oxygen enter blood capillaries? what pO2 do alveoli have? what happens here then? what happens to oxygen when cells respire? lowering what? where do red blood cells deliever oxyheamoglobin? where does the haemoglobin go then?
Oxyhaemoglobin, haemoglobin (hb), large protein. quaternary structure, it has more than one polypeptide chain, four, haem group which contains iron and gives it the red colour, high affinity for oxygen, is the tendency to combine, four, oxygen joins to the iron in haemoglbing forming oxyhaemoglobin, reversible reaction, when oxygen leaves oxyheamglobin (dissociates) near the body cells it turns back to haemoglobin
Partial pressure of oxygen, pO2, oxygen concentration, the higher partial pressure, pCO2, is a measure of co2 in cells, partial pressyre of oxygen, as oxygen loads onto haemoglobin to form oxyhaemglobin where theres high pO2 and oxyhaemoglobin unloads its oxygen where theres lower pO2, alveoli in the lungs, high pO2, so oxygen loads onto haemoglboin forming oxyhaeoglobin, they sue up oxygen, lowers pO2, to respiring tissues, returns to lungs to pick up more o2,
What does a dissociation curve show? where is po2 high? what is the affinity here? meaning? whats the satuiration here? where is po2 low? whats the affinity hre? what does it do instead of what? whats the saturation here? what does 100% saturation mean? what is 0% saturation mean?
Why is the graph S-shaped? what happens as Hb starts to become saturated? whats the effect on the curve? what does the steep bit in the middle represent? and the shallow bits at each end? when its steep wgat oes a small change in p)2 cause?
What has higehr affinity for oxygen adult or fetal haemoglobin? why? where does the fetus get oxygen? whats happened by the time the mothers blood reeaches the placenta? why? what does the fetus need to survive? what would happen if they had the same affinity?
how staurated the haemoglboin is with oxygena t any give partial pressure, lungs, high affinity for oxygen, it will readily combine, high saturation of oxygen, respiring tissue, low affinity for oxygen, so it releases oxygen rather than combines with it, thats why it has low saturation, every heamoglboin molecule is carrying the max 4 moelcules of O2, means none of the haebglobin are carrying o2 molecules
when haemoglboin combines with the first 02 molecule its shape alters in a way that makes it easier for other molecules to combine, it gets ahrder for more oxygen moelcules to join, the curve has a steep bit in the mioddle.where its really easy for oxygen molecules to join, are where it harder, a big change in the amount of oxygen carried by Hb
Fetal, the fetus blood is better at obsorbing oxygen than its mothers blood, mothers blood across the placenta, its oxygen saturation has decreased as its been used up by the mothers body, its haemoglboin has to have higher affinity for oxygen, its blood wouldnt be saturated enough
Oxygen also gives up oxygen more/or less readily at higher partial pressures of pCO2? whats this a cunning way of? whens cells respire what do they produce? what does this raise? what rate does this increase? whats the reason this is linked?
what happens to most of C02 from respiring cells? whats it converted to? by what enzyme? what happens to the rest? whats the percentage? what does the carbonic acid do? giving? what does this increase in hydrogen ions cause? what compound is formed? what does this process also stop? what happens to the hydrogencarbionate ions? what are they transported in? what does the low pCO2 cause at the lungs? what does the co2 do then?
More readily, its a cunning way of getting more oxygen to cells during activity, Co2, raises pCO2, increaseing the rate of oxygen unloading, how Co2 affects blood PH
diffuses into red blood cells which is ocnverted to cabonic acid by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, binds directly to haemoglboin and is carried to the luings, 10%, the carbonic acid split up to give hydrogen ions and hydrogencarbonate ions, causes oxyhaemoglbin to unload its oygen so that hawmoglobin can take up the hydrogen ions, haemoglobonic acid, also stops the hydrogen ions from increasing the cells acidity, diffuse out of the red blood cells, the blood plasma, hydrogencarbonate and hydrogen ions to recombine into co2, diffuses into the alveoli and is breathed out