Biology AS Cells

Information about organelles

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 12-10-11 17:32

Mitochondria

  • Found in all living cells.
  • Shape varies- mainly a sausage circular shape.
  • The site of aerobic respiration.
  • They have two phospholipid membranes.
  • The outer membrane controls the massage of other materials in and out of the mitochondria.
  • Matrix contains enzymes that control the early stages of respiration.
  • Cristane provide a larger surface area for the attatchments of enzymes to make ATP, the energy currency of a cell.


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Nucleus

  • Largest organelle in a cell.
  • Contains DNA which has all the information required to make a new copy of the cell and to control it's activities.
  • In a dividing cell the DNA molecules are condensed into chromosomes.
  • Usually spherical and has a diameter of 10μm.
  • Have one or more nucleoli that produce the RNA that is used to make ribosomes.
  • Nuclear membrane is a double phospholipid membrane.
  • Has large pores to allow large RNA molecules to pass through.
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Golgi Apparatus and Lysosomes

Golgi Apparatus

  • Appearance is constantly changing as material moves in and out.
  • A group of flattened cavities.
  • It takes enzymes and other proteins that have been synthesised in the ER and packages them into the membrane-bound vesicle.
  • Vesicles transport materials to other parts of the body.

Lysosomes

  • Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes.
  • They can destroy old or surplus organelles inside a cell, or they can be used to break down material that has been take to the cell.
  • This can be used to break down excessive muscle tissue after birth.
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Rough and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

  • A series of thin intricate channels with ribosomes attached.
  • It exsits in the space created by the folds in the phospholipid membrane.
  • Narrow fluid-filled space between these membranes acts as a transport system to move materials through the cell.
  • Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis. 
  • Ribosomes attached to the ER produce proteins destined for export from the cell to be used elsewhere.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  • The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.
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