- Found in all living cells.
- Shape varies- mainly a sausage circular shape.
- The site of aerobic respiration.
- They have two phospholipid membranes.
- The outer membrane controls the massage of other materials in and out of the mitochondria.
- Matrix contains enzymes that control the early stages of respiration.
- Cristane provide a larger surface area for the attatchments of enzymes to make ATP, the energy currency of a cell.
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- Largest organelle in a cell.
- Contains DNA which has all the information required to make a new copy of the cell and to control it's activities.
- In a dividing cell the DNA molecules are condensed into chromosomes.
- Usually spherical and has a diameter of 10μm.
- Have one or more nucleoli that produce the RNA that is used to make ribosomes.
- Nuclear membrane is a double phospholipid membrane.
- Has large pores to allow large RNA molecules to pass through.
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Golgi Apparatus and Lysosomes
- Appearance is constantly changing as material moves in and out.
- A group of flattened cavities.
- It takes enzymes and other proteins that have been synthesised in the ER and packages them into the membrane-bound vesicle.
- Vesicles transport materials to other parts of the body.
- Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes.
- They can destroy old or surplus organelles inside a cell, or they can be used to break down material that has been take to the cell.
- This can be used to break down excessive muscle tissue after birth.
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Rough and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
- A series of thin intricate channels with ribosomes attached.
- It exsits in the space created by the folds in the phospholipid membrane.
- Narrow fluid-filled space between these membranes acts as a transport system to move materials through the cell.
- Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis.
- Ribosomes attached to the ER produce proteins destined for export from the cell to be used elsewhere.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.
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