Biology Additional

                        BILOGY ADDITIONAL

  • Cell Structure
  • Diffusion
  • Tissues and Organs
  • Photosynthesis and Plants
  • Distribution of organisms
  • Proteins and Enzymes
  • Resperation
  • Cell division
  • Genetics and DNA
  • Species
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  • Created by: oliJ
  • Created on: 29-01-15 18:22

Cell Structure

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Tissues and Organs

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Photosynthesis and Plants

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Distribution of organisms

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Proteins and Enzymes


  • Protein= long chain Amino acids that are folded into a specific shape to form a specific protein, for a specific job.
  • Protein is made in the ribosomes
  • Protein is used in muscle repair and growth

Formed from a request from a cell often for:

  • structural proteins
  • catalysts - enzyme
  • antibodies
  • hormones
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Cell division

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Genetics and DNA

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Proteins and Enzymes

Enzymes in the body

Amylase:            salivary glands:       starch -----> glucose

Protease (pepsin):     stomach:        protein ----> Amino acids

Lipase:              pancreas/small intestine:      fats ------> fatty acids + glycerol

Stomach has hydrochloric acid so that it is at optimum pH for protease (pH: 1-2) and kills bacteria/pathegons

Bile is used to nuetralise stomach acid and emulsify fats- creates larger surface area = faster rate of reaction, created in liver, stored in gall bladder

Small intestine and pancreas produce all 3 enzymes to help digestion

Large intestine absorbs excess water and pushes out digested food = creation of faeces

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Proteins and Enzymes


Enzymes = biological catalysts

Enzyme + substrate enter active site --> Forms enyme/substrate complex (when a specific substrate is in its specific active site) --> Enzyme/product complex (product is formed in active site) --> Enzyme + product leave active site

Denaturing= Structure breaks and active site changes shape

Factors affecting enzymes:

  • Temperature - Increasing temperature increases kinetic energy and collisions thus increasing rate of reaction, until optimum, after optimum enzyme starts to denature and rate of reaction decreases again
  • pH - Has optimum value, either side of this the enzyme will denature
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Proteins and Enzymes

Uses of enzymes in industry:

  • Biological washing powder/detergant- only need low temperatures = lower cost, contain lipase and protease which digest the stain, allergies can be set off
  • Slimming foods- tastes sweet but has less fat content, isomerase converts glucose into fructose
  • Baby foods- protease is used to soften the food 
  • Sugar syrup- used in many foods, carbohydrase causes starch to turn into sugar syrup
  • Soft-centred chocolate- enzyme breaks down originally hard-centred chocolate to make it soft
  • Genetic engineering- enzyme used to cut out specific gene - used to make insulin
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