Biology- Adaptation and survival

Adaptiation and survival

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Adaptation and survival

Adapt and survie

  • All organisms need a supply of materials to survive and reproduce. They get these from their surroundings and from other living organisms
  • Organisms are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they normally live
  • Microorganisms have a wide range of adaptation which enable some of them to live in extreme conditions
  • Plants need light, carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, and nutrients such as mineral ions from the soil 
  • Animal need food from other organisms, water and oxygen
  • Special features of organisms are called adaptations
  • Plants are adapted to obtain light and other materials efficiently in order to make foos by photosynthesis
  • Animals may be plant eating (herbivores) or eat other animals (carnivores). Their mouthparts are adapted to their diet
  • Etremophiles are micoorganisms which are adapted to live in conditions where enzymes won't usually work because they would denature
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Adaptation and survival

Adaptation in animals

  • Animal adaptation help them to survive in the conditions where they normally live
  • Animals in cold areas are usually large with a small surface area: volume ratio
  • Animal in hor dry areas may have a large surface area: volume ratio
  • Coat colour may change in different seasons giving year-round camouflage
  • If animals were not adapted to survive in the areas they live in, they would die
  • Some animals in cold climates (e.g. in the Artic) have thick fur and fat under the skin (blubber) to keep them warm
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Adaptation and survival

Adaptation in plants

  • Plants lose water vapour from the leaf surface
  • To survive in dry coniditions plants have adaptations to reduce the surface area of leaves, and to have tissues which store water and extensive root systems
  • Plants need light, water, space and nutrients to survive
  • Plants need to collect and conserve water. They can lose water as water vapour through holes in the leaves called stomata
  • Water can be collected if the plant has an extensive root system
  • Plants are eaten by animals. Some plants have deveopled thorns, poisonous chemicals and warning colours to put animals off
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Adaptation and survival

Competition in animals

  • Animals often compete with each other for food, mates and territory
  • Well-adapted animals are good competitors
  • Animals are in competition with each other for water, food, space, mates and breeding sites
  • An animal's territory will be large enough to find water, food and have space for breeding
  • Predators compete with their pray, as they want to eat them
  • Predators and prey may be camouflages, so that they are kess easy to see
  • Some animals, e.g. caterpillars, may be poisonous and have warning colours so that they are not eaten
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Adaptation and survival

Competiton in plants

  • Plants compete with each other for light, water and mineral ions from the soil
  • Well-adapted plants are good competitors
  • All plants compete for water, nutrients and light. For example, in woodland some smaller plants (e.g. snowdrops) flower before the trees are in leaf. This ensures they get enough light, water and nutrients
  • Plants which grow deep roots can reach underground water better than those with shallow roots
  • Some plants spread their seeds over a wide area so that they do not comepe with themselves
    • Some of these plants use animals to spread their fruits and seeds
    • Some plants use the wind (e.g. sycamore) or mini- explosions to spread their seeds (e.g. broom)
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Adaptation and survival

How do you survive?

  • Organisms have adaptations which enable them to survive in the coniditions in which they normally live
  • Plants often compete with each other for light, water and nutrients from the soil
  • Animals often compete with each other for food, mates and territory
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Adaptation and survival

Measuring environmental change

  • Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms
  • These changes can be caused by living or non-living factors
  • Environmental changes can be measured using non-living indicators
  • Living organisms can be used as pollution indicators
  • Non-living factors which might change include: temperature, rainfall, light and oxygen levels
  • Living facotrs which might change include: arrival of a new predator or diease, or the introduction of new plants which might probide new food or habitats
  • Lichens indicate the level or air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide. The more species of lichin growing, the cleaner the air. They are an example of an indicator species, which indicates changes in environmental pollution levels
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Adaptation and survival

The impact of change

  • The distribution of living organisms is affected by changes in non-living and living factors
  • The data on the effect of environemental change is not always easy to interpret
  • Birds may fly futher North of the climate gets warmer. Other birds mayt then have new competitors
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