Biology Across the Ecosystem Key Words

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Autotrophs - organisms that make their own food from minerals etc

Heterotrophs - cannot make their own food, need ready made food

Osmotic Balance - the transfer of liquids through a membrane, if a cells level of dissolved chemical is too low it will lose too much water by osmosis. When the cell has the correct level of dissolved chemicals. it is osmotically balanced.

Compensation point - when respiration makes the same amount as carbon dioxide as photosynthesis uses

Pyramid of biomass - the mass of an organism in the environment in comparison to the rest of the chain

Pyramid of numbers - the amount of organisms in its environment.

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Further up the food chain

Mutualistic relationship - when both species benefit from the relationship (clown fish&sea anenome)

Commensalism - one benefits without harming the other (barnacles&whales)

Parastism - one benefits but harms the host (tapeworms&humans)

Sickle Cell Anemia - caused by a faulty recessive allele (one allele from each parent required to get the gene, if only one allele acquired then its called being a carrier) protects you from malaria because it makes red cells jam in small capillaries.

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New Technologies

Plant Cell - consists of a

- Cell Wall = cellulose (a carbohydrate)

- cell membrane = mostly fat

- cytoplasm = starch (a carbohydrate), protein & water

- chloroplast = protein, dna, chlorophyll

Plasmid - small circle of dna ound in bacteria, it's not part of a bacteriums main chromosome 

Enzymes - a protein that catalyses a chemical reaction in living things (eg rennin in cheese production)

Genetic Modification - altering the characteristic of an organism by introducing another organisms characteristic into it's DNA, this is done by cutting out the desired gene from a cell by using an enzyme then cutting out the plasmid of a bacteria. then by using a vector the desired gene is transferred in the plasmid then transferred back into the bacteria to create the gm product.

Genetic tests are carried out by isolating dna and adding gene probes; either by uv or autoradiography (attaching some sort of radiation onto the probe so when x rayed appears black)

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A - has A antigens and Anti B antibodies 

B - has B antigens and Anti A antibodies

AB - has A&B antigens and no antibodies

O - has no antigens and has Anti A&B antibodies

Right atrium - pumps blood to the lungs (blood is deoxygenated when it goes to the atrium, once it goes through the lungs becomes oxygenated and then gets pumped into the left atrium to enter the ventricle then gets pumped to the rest of the body DOUBLE CIRCULATION)

Left atrium - pumps blood to the rest of the body. Both atriums have valves to make sure that the blood flows to the right direction.

Gas Exchange - the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs

Tissue fluid - plasma that is forced out of the blood as it passes through a capillary network. Tissue fluid carries dissolved chemicals from the blood to cells. 

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Energy for life

Aerobic respiration - requires oxygen, slowly acting but releases large amounts of energy, the energy is then used to synthesize ATP. During exercise more ATP is provided for faster muscle contraction. 

Anaerobic respiration - used in short bursts and doesn't require oxygen (glucose->lactic acid) only used when aerobic respiration cannot meet the demand.

Oxygen debt - after anaerobic reaction occurs, oxygen is required to break down the lactic acid. the amount of oxygen used is referred to as oxygen debt.

Mitochondria - where some of the reaction for respiration takes place in the cell cytoplasm. 

Heart rate - how many times the heart beats per minute, this varies per person depending on: family history, regular exercise and lifestyle choices.

Gas exhange - Oxygen moves from the air in your lungs into your blood by diffusion, carbon dioxide diffuses the opposite way. this happens in the alveoli of the lungs. 

Diffusion - movement of molecules from an area of high concentration into an area of low concentration. the bigger the difference in concentration the faster the rate of diffusion.  Faster&deeper breathing and faster blood flow makes gas exchange happen at its optimum rate.

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Get Moving

Ligament - holds bone to bone

tendon - attaches muscle to bone

cartilage - smooth protective surface, covers bone ends and provides easy movement.

synovial fluid - lubricates and nourishes the tissues in the joint capsule.

Antagonistic pairs - this is how muscles work as they can only contract

RICE - rest, ice, compression & elevation

Systolic - pressure when left ventricle contracts to push blood back into the arteries (the higher number)

Diastolic - pressure in the arteries between pumps, when the heart is relaxed and refilling with blood. 

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