Inheritance (part 1)
Gene: A length of DNA that codes for the production of a particular plypeptide or protein.
Chromosome: Highly condensed DNA molecule that appears in a cell just before cell division. The name means couloured body
Chromatids: Either of the two strands that make up a chromosome
Centromere: region where the two chrimatids in a chromosome are joined together.
Diploid: cell or organism that possesses two set of chromosomes.
homologous: having the same genes in the same positions; in a diploid cell there are homologous pair of each type of chromosomes.
Locus: position of an allel on a chromosome
Allele: alternative from of a gene.
Genotype: The particular alleles an organism process.
Inheritance (part 2)
Phenotype: The observable features an organism possesses. Simply put: pheotype = gentoype + enviroment.
Gene pool: The sum total of the alleles circulating in an interbreeding population.
Selection and Speciation
Directional selection: Type of natural selectionthat favours one extreme of phenotype, for example talles, quickest, heaviest.
Reproductively isolated: Unable to breed with other populations, because of differences in for example behaviour or physiology