The first rank in this system is called a kingdom. There are five kingdoms, based upon what an organism's cells are like:
- animals (all multicellular animals)
- plants (all green plants)
- fungi (moulds, mushrooms, yeast)
- prokaryotes (bacteria, blue-green algae)
- protoctists (Amoeba, Paramecium)
There are then further divisions:
- kingdom These can be remebered by
- class Kevin plays clarinet or flute-grotty sound!
The seven processes of life
Mrs Gren can be used to remember the seven processes of life. Viruses are not classed as living things because they do the show these seven processes.
Bony fish: Gills, scaly skin and fins
Birds: Feathers, beaks, eggs with hard cells, homeothermic, fore-limbs have become wings
Amphibians: Eggs and larvae live in water, adults often live on land, moist scale-less skin
Mammals: Hair, different types of teeth, placenta, young feed on milk from mammary glands, well developed cerebral hemispheres, heart with 4 chambers, homeothermic, diaphragm
Reptiles: Scaly skin and eggs with rubbery shells
Fungai: Nuclei and cell walls, they don't have chlorophyll.
This is a plant cell because it has a cell wall.
Cell wall: Protects the outside of the cell
Nucleus: Stores infomation about making proteins
Chloroplasts: Makes food by photosynthesis
Vacuole: Contains cell sap
Cell membrane: Controls what goes in and out of the cell
Mitochondria: Releases energy from food
A plant cell becomes turgid when it absorbs as much water as it can. Only plant cells can do this because of the cell wall.
A plant cell plasmolyses when the cell membrane comes away from the cell wall after being turgid. Lysis occurs in animal cells when the cell bursts due to water pressure.
Cells in humans:
Ciliated cells- In respiratory tract
Root hair cells: Absorption
Xylem vessels: conduction and support
Muscle cells: contraction
Red blood cells: Transport
Draw diagram from test:
Movement in and out of cells
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Active transport is the movement of ions through a membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
It is the transport of SOLVENT from lower concentrated solution to the one with higher concentration.
It takes place across a semi permeable membrane
Water moves from dilute solution in the soil into the cells of a plants roots-Osmosis
Carbon dioxide enters a plant's leaves when it is photosynthesising-Diffusion
The roots of plants absorb magnesium ions from the soil even though there is a higher concentration of them in the cells- Active transport
A spot of blue ink dropped in a glass of still water quickly colours all of the water blue-Diffusion
Chemicals of life
Carbohydrates= carbon+hydrogen+oxygen (often end in 'ose'
Maltose, glucose, sucrose, celluose, fructose,starch(amylase), lactose and glycogen are carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates- sucrose
Carbohydrate property table
Starch, refined celluose and sucrose are reducing sugars because they change benedicts solution blue.
Monosaccharides- One sugar molecule, complex sugar
Polysaccharides- Many bonded sugar molecules, complex carbohydrate
Disaccharides- 2 bonded sugar molecules, complex sugar
Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Carbohydrates are breads and cakes.
Lipids contain 3 elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
The major types of fats and oils (triglycerides)
Fats consist of butter, lard, and oil
Draw triglyceride diagram.
- Lipids are insoluble in water
- Lipids include fats, oils, steroids and waxes and fat soluble vitamins which all have different structures
- Soluble in ethanol
- Forms white emulsion in water
The elements found in proteins are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These 4 elements combine together to form amino acids.
Proteins help to transport molecules of oxygen.
- Clams and tofu
- Parmesan cheese
- Lean beef and lamb
- Chicken breast
- Pork tenderloin
Proteins turn from blue to purple in copper sulphate.
If the food turned purple, buirets was used.
Bar charts can be used to display results.
If an orange juice is old or it is from concentrate, it will have less vitamin C.