• Created by: Tom Belk
  • Created on: 03-06-14 19:39


The first rank in this system is called a kingdom. There are five kingdoms, based upon what an organism's cells are like:

  1. animals (all multicellular animals)
  2. plants (all green plants)
  3. fungi (moulds, mushrooms, yeast)
  4. prokaryotes (bacteria, blue-green algae)
  5. protoctists (Amoeba, Paramecium)

There are then further divisions:

  • kingdom                  These can be remebered by
  • phylum
  • class                   Kevin plays clarinet or flute-grotty sound!
  • order
  • family
  • genus
  • species
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The seven processes of life

Mrs Gren can be used to remember the seven processes of life. Viruses are not classed as living things because they do the show these seven processes.








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Phylum: vertebrates

Bony fish: Gills, scaly skin and fins

Birds: Feathers, beaks, eggs with hard cells, homeothermic, fore-limbs have become wings

Amphibians: Eggs and larvae live in water, adults often live on land, moist scale-less skin

Mammals: Hair, different types of teeth, placenta, young feed on milk from mammary glands, well developed cerebral hemispheres, heart with 4 chambers, homeothermic, diaphragm

Reptiles: Scaly skin and eggs with rubbery shells

Fungai: Nuclei and cell walls, they don't have chlorophyll. 

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This is a plant cell because it has a cell wall.( 

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Cell structure

Cell wall: Protects the outside of the cell

Nucleus: Stores infomation about making proteins

Chloroplasts: Makes food by photosynthesis

Vacuole: Contains cell sap

 Cell membrane: Controls what goes in and out of the cell

Mitochondria: Releases energy from food

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Cells 2

A plant cell becomes turgid when it absorbs as much water as it can. Only plant cells can do this because of the cell wall.

A plant cell plasmolyses when the cell membrane comes away from the cell wall after being turgid. Lysis occurs in animal cells when the cell bursts due to water pressure.

Cells in humans:

Ciliated cells- In respiratory tract

Root hair cells: Absorption

Xylem vessels: conduction and support

Muscle cells: contraction

Red blood cells: Transport

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Draw diagram from test:

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Movement in and out of cells

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Active transport is the movement of ions through a membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.

It is the transport of SOLVENT from lower concentrated solution to the one with higher concentration.

It takes place across a semi permeable membrane

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Movement examples

Water moves from dilute solution in the soil into the cells of a plants roots-Osmosis

Carbon dioxide enters a plant's leaves when it is photosynthesising-Diffusion

The roots of plants absorb magnesium ions from the soil even though there is a higher concentration of them in the cells- Active transport

A spot of blue ink dropped in a glass of still water quickly colours all of the water blue-Diffusion

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Chemicals of life


Carbohydrates= carbon+hydrogen+oxygen (often end in 'ose'






Maltose, glucose, sucrose, celluose, fructose,starch(amylase), lactose and glycogen are carbohydrates.

Simple carbohydrates- sucrose

Common carbohydrates-celluose

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Carbohydrate property table

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Starch, refined celluose and sucrose are reducing sugars because they change benedicts solution blue.

Monosaccharides- One sugar molecule, complex sugar

Polysaccharides- Many bonded sugar molecules, complex carbohydrate

Disaccharides- 2 bonded sugar molecules, complex sugar

Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Carbohydrates are breads and cakes.

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Glucose structure


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Sucrose structure


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Starch structure


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Lipids contain 3 elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

The major types of fats and oils (triglycerides)  

Fats consist of butter, lard, and oil

Draw triglyceride diagram.

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Lipids 2

  • Lipids are insoluble in water
  • Lipids include fats, oils, steroids and waxes and fat soluble vitamins which all have different structures
  • Hydrophobic
  • Soluble in ethanol
  • Forms white emulsion in water
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The elements found in proteins are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These 4 elements combine together to form amino acids.

Proteins help to transport molecules of oxygen.

  • Cod
  • Clams and tofu
  • Parmesan cheese
  • Lean beef and lamb
  • Chicken breast
  • Pork tenderloin

Proteins turn from blue to purple in copper sulphate.     

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If the food turned purple, buirets was used.

Bar charts can be used to display results.

If an orange juice is old or it is from concentrate, it will have less vitamin C.

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Tooth structure


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Teeth locations


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