keeping healthy part 1
diet and exercise;
- A healthy diet ha the right balance of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
- Minerals ions and vitamins are needed to stay healthy.
- If the diet is unbalenced you would become malnourished
- metabolic rate is the rate that chemical reatctions in cells work at.
- If the energy you take in equals the energy you use then your mass will stay the same.
- Eating too much can lead to being overweight, obese or having type 2 diabetes (high blood sugar)
- the opposite of this is a dificiency disease due to ack of vitamins or minerals.
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keeping healthy part 2
Inheritance, excercise and health;
- your metabolic rate can be effected by genes.
- there are two types of cholesterol, you need 'good' cholesterol for your cell membranes to make vital substances.
- few people inherite high levels of 'bad' cholesterol wich can lead to heart disease.
- by exerciseing a person can increase their metabolic rate and lower high cholesterol levels.
- pathogens and disease;
- pathogens can casue infectious diseases. Pathogens are tiny microorganisms- usually bacteria or viruses
- ^these reproduce rapidly when entered the body, producing toxins (poisons)
- they make you feel ill by damaging cells.
- semmelweiss realised that infection could be pased from patient to patient through the doctors, he made his staff wash their hands before and after treating a patient.
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keeping healthy part 3
- the skin acts as a wall to stop pathogens. They are also trapped by mucus and kille by stomach acid.
- white blood cells are also part of the immune system: they ingest pathogens, they produce antibodies to help distroy them, they produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins that pathogens produce.
using drugs to treat disease;
- Antibiotics kill bacteria in the body.
- pennacilin in an antibiotic, but there are many others. it was descovered by flemming in 1928.
- viruses are hard to kill becasue they reproduce inside body cells so any treatment used could harm the body cells.
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keeping healthy part 4
growing cultures for bacteria;
- liquid or gel containing nutrients- a culture medium (agar jelly)
- warmth and oxygen
- incubated at 25 degrees c in a lab or 35 degrees c in industry.
- some pathogens, mainly viruses can mutate creating a new form of itself (a mutation)
- very few people are immune to these so disease spreads quickly.
- In a country= epidemic
- world wide= pandemic
- The MRSA 'super bug' is a bacteria that have evolved through natural selection, it has become resistant to the common antibiotics.
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keeping healthy part 5
- dead or ineffective pathogens are used to create a vaccine.
- white blood cells make react by producing antibodies.
- this makes the person immune.
- the antibodies recognize the antigen [the shape] of the pathogen if they come across it again.
- the MMR vaccination is one of several. it prevents measles mumps and rubella
how do we deal with disease?.
- most people in a population are vaccinated to protect society form serious diseases.
- diseases such as measles can lead to long term damage to the body, such as deafness and occasionally death.
- over use of antibiotics can lead to the development of new strains of bacteria.
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