keeping healthy part 1

diet and exercise;

  • A healthy diet ha the right balance of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
  • Minerals ions and vitamins are needed to stay healthy.
  • If the diet is unbalenced you would become malnourished
  • metabolic rate is the rate that chemical reatctions in cells work at.

weight problems;

  • If the energy you take in equals the energy you use then your mass will stay the same.
  • Eating too much can lead to being overweight, obese or having type 2 diabetes (high blood sugar)
  • the opposite of this is a dificiency disease due to ack of vitamins or minerals.
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keeping healthy part 2

Inheritance, excercise and health;

  • your metabolic rate can be effected by genes.
  • there are two types of cholesterol, you need 'good' cholesterol for your cell membranes to make vital substances.
  • few people inherite high levels of 'bad' cholesterol wich can lead to heart disease.
  • by exerciseing a person can increase their metabolic rate and lower high cholesterol levels.
  • pathogens and disease;
  • pathogens can casue infectious diseases. Pathogens are tiny microorganisms- usually bacteria or viruses
  • ^these reproduce rapidly when entered the body, producing toxins (poisons)
  • they make you feel ill by damaging cells.
  • semmelweiss realised that infection could be pased from patient to patient through the doctors, he made his staff wash their hands before and after treating a patient.
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keeping healthy part 3

Defence mechanisms;

  • the skin acts as a wall to stop pathogens. They are also trapped by mucus and kille by stomach acid.
  • white blood cells  are also part of the immune system: they ingest pathogens, they produce antibodies to help distroy them, they produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins that pathogens produce.

using drugs to treat disease;

  • Antibiotics kill bacteria in the body.
  • pennacilin in an antibiotic, but there are many others. it was descovered by flemming in 1928.
  • viruses are hard to kill becasue they reproduce inside body cells so any treatment used could harm the body cells.
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keeping healthy part 4

growing cultures for bacteria;

  •  liquid or gel containing nutrients- a culture medium (agar jelly)
  • warmth and oxygen
  • incubated at 25 degrees c in a lab or 35 degrees c in industry.

changing pathogens;

  • some pathogens, mainly viruses can mutate creating a new form of itself (a mutation)
  • very few people are immune to these so disease spreads quickly.
  • In a country= epidemic
  • world wide= pandemic
  • The MRSA 'super bug' is a bacteria that have evolved through natural selection, it has become resistant to the common antibiotics. 
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keeping healthy part 5


  • dead or ineffective pathogens are used to create a vaccine.
  • white blood cells make react by producing antibodies.
  • this makes the person immune.
  • the antibodies recognize the antigen [the shape] of the pathogen if they come across it again.
  • the MMR vaccination is one of several. it prevents measles mumps and rubella

how do we deal with disease?.

  • most people in a population are vaccinated to protect society form serious diseases.
  • diseases such as measles can lead to long term damage to the body, such as deafness and occasionally death.
  • over use of antibiotics can lead to the development of new strains of bacteria.
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