Palisade cells- adapted for phtosyntheisis. tall shape means the have a large surface area for absorbing carbon dioxide into the leaf.
Guard cells- adapted to open and close pores. they are a special shape which opens and closes the stoma. stoma is used for gas exchange and controlling water loss.
Red blood cells- carry oxygen around the body, they have no nuclues.
makes new cells for growth and repair.
A cell reproduces by splitting making two identical copies of itself.
Asexual reproduction alos uses mitosis. off spring has exactly the same genes as the parent because thier is no variation.
used in sexual reproduction.
produces cells which have half the normal of chromosomes. which is 46 so each cell has 23.
Involves 2 divisions so it ends up woth 4 gametes.
in humans meiosis only occurs in reproductive organs where the gametes are made.
uses of enzymes
- used in bilological detergents. mainly protein digesting enzymes like protease and fat digesting enzymes like lipase.
- used to change foods using protease so it is easier to digest. carbohydrases can turn starch syprup into sugar syprup. Glucose can be turned into frutose by using isomerase.
- used in industry as they speed up reactions with out high temperatures or pressure.
1) they are specific catalyse any reaction
2) lower temp = lower cost = lower energy
3) work for long time = continuous use
1) develop allergies
2) denature and high temperatures