key points for my bioology exam and simple facts that i should know

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specialised cells

Palisade cells- adapted for phtosyntheisis. tall shape means the have a large surface area for absorbing carbon dioxide into the leaf.

Guard cells- adapted to open and close pores. they are a special shape which opens and closes the stoma. stoma is used for gas exchange and controlling water loss.

Red blood cells-  carry oxygen around the body, they have no nuclues.

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Carbon dioxide+water-------------->glucose+oxygen 


Glucose+oxygen--------------------->carbon dioxide+water+ENERGY

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makes new cells for growth and repair.

A cell reproduces by splitting making two identical copies of itself.

Asexual reproduction alos uses mitosis. off spring has exactly the same genes as the parent because thier is no variation.  

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used in sexual reproduction.

produces cells which have half the normal of chromosomes. which is 46 so each cell has 23.

Involves 2 divisions so it ends up woth 4 gametes.

in humans meiosis only occurs in reproductive organs where the gametes are made.

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uses of enzymes

  • used in bilological detergents. mainly protein digesting enzymes like protease and fat digesting enzymes like lipase.
  • used to change foods using protease so it is easier to digest. carbohydrases can turn starch syprup into sugar syprup. Glucose can be turned into frutose by using isomerase.
  • used in industry as they speed up reactions with out high temperatures or pressure.


1) they are specific catalyse any reaction

2) lower temp = lower cost = lower energy

3) work for long time = continuous use

4) biodegradable


1) develop allergies

2) denature and high temperatures

3) contamination

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Bethany Cunningham


Good notes and great use of colours

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