biology 2 the components of life

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  • Created by: helen19
  • Created on: 01-09-13 23:52

1.1

Be able to describe the function of the components of a bacterial cell including; chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, flagella and cell wall.

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1.2

Be able to describe the function of the components of a plant cell including chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus.

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1.3

Be able to describe the function of the components of an animal cell including cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus

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1.4

Be able to describe how a plant and animal cell can be studied in greater detail with a light microscope.

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1.5

Be able to demonstate an understanding of how changes in microscope technology have enabled us to see cells with more clarity and detail  than in the past, including simple magnification calculations

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1.6

Be able o recall that a gene is a section of a molecule of DNA and that it codes for a specific protein

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1.7 A

Be able to describe a DNA molecule as two strands coiled to form a double helix

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1.7 B

Be able to describe a DNA molecule as strands linked by a series of complimentary base pairs joined together by weak hydrogen bonds:

I/. adenine(A)  and thymine(T)

II/. cytosine(C) and Guanine(G)

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1.8

Be able to investigate how to extract DNA from cells

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1.9

Be able to explain how the structure of DNA was discovered, including the roles of the scientists Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins

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1.10

Be able to demonstate an understanding of the implications of sequencing the human genome (Human Genome Project) and the collaboration that took place within this project

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1.11

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the process of genetic engineering, including the removal of a gene from the DNA of one organism and the insertion of that gene into the DNA of another organism

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1.12

Be able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engieering th produce GM organisms including:

A beta-carotene in golden rice to reduce vitamine A deficiency in humans

B the production of insulin by GM bacteria

C the productionof herbicide - resistant crop plant

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1.13

Be able to describe the division of a cell by mitosis as the preduction of two daughter cells, each with identical sets of chromosomes in the nucleus as the parent cell, and that this results in the formation oftwo genetically identical diplod body cell

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1.14

Be able to recall that mitosis occurs during growth, repair and asexual reproduction

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1.15

Be able to recall that, at fertillisation, haploid gametes combine to form a diploid zygot

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1.16

Be able to describe the division of a cell by meiosis as the production of four daughter cells , each with half the number of chromosomes, and that this results in the formation of genetically different haploid gametes

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1.17

Be ble to recall that cloning is an example of aexual reproduction that produces genetically identical copies

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1.18 (H)

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the stages in the production of colned mammals, including:

A removalof the diploid nucleus from the body cell

B enucleation of egg cell

C insertion of diploid nucleus into enucleated egg cell

D stimulation of the diploid nucleus to divid by mitosis

E implant into surrogate mother

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1.19

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages and risks of cloning mammals

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1.20

Be able to recall that stem cells in the embryo can differentiate into all other types of cell, but that cells lose this ablityas the mammal matures

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1.21

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the advantages, disadvantages and risks arising from adult and embryonic stem cell research

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1.22

B able to describe how the order of bases in a section of DNA decides the order of amino acids in the protein

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1.23 (H)

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of the stages of protein synthesis, including transcription and translation:

A the production of complimentary mRNA strand in the nucleus

Bthe attacchment of the mRNA to the ribosome

C the coding by triplets of bases (codons) in the mRNA for specific amino acids

D the transfer of amino acids to the ribosome by tRNA

E the linking of the amino acids to from polypeptides

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1.24

Be able to describe each protein as having its own specific number and sequence of amino acids, resulting in different shaped molecules that have different functions

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1.25

Be able to demonstrate and understanding of how gene mutaitions change the DNA base sequence and that mutaitions can be harmful, benificial or neither

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1.26

Be able to describe enzymes as biological catalysts

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1.27

Be able to demonstrate an understanding that enzymes catalyse chemical reactions occuring inside and outside living cells, including:

A DNA replication

B protein synthesis

C digestion

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1.28

Be able to describe the factors affecting enzyme reactions, including:

A temperature

B substrate concentration

C pH

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1.29

Be able to recall enzymes are highly specific for their substrate

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1.30

Be able to demonstrate an understand of the action of enzymes in terms of lock-and-key hypothesis

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1.31

Be able to describe how enzymes can be denatured due to changes in the shape of the active site

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1.32

Be able to investigate the factors that affect enzyme activity

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2.1

Be able to recall that respiration is a process used by all living organisms in organic molecules

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2.2

Be able to explain how the human circulatory system facilitates respiration including:

A glucose and oxygen diffuses from capillaries into respiring cells

B carbon dioxide diffuses from respiring cells into capillaries

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2.3

Be able to define diffusion as the movement of particles for an area of high concentration to and area of lower concentration

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2.4

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of how aerobic respiration uses oxygen to release energy from glucose and how this process can be modelled usin the word equation for aerobic respiration.

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2.5

Be able to investigate the effect of excercise on breathing rate amd heart rate

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2.6

Be able to explain why heart rate and breathing rate increase with excercise

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2.7

Be able to calculate, heart rate, stroke volume and and cardiac output, using this equation

cardiac output= volume of stroke x heart rate

                   cardiac output

volume of stroke       heart rate

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2.8

Be able to demonstate an understanding of  why, during various exercise, muscle calls may not recieve sufficient oxygen for their energy requirments and so start to respire anaerobically

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2.9

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of how anaerobic respiration releases energy from glucose into lactic acid and how this process can be modelled using the word equation for anaerobic respiration

glucose=lactic acid

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2.10

Be able to recall that the process of anerobic respiration releases less enrgy than aerobic repriation.

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2.11

Be able to describe how the build-up of lactic acid requires extra oxygen to break down. this is called excess post-excercise oxygen consumtion or EPOC (formally known as oxygen debt)

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2.12

Be able to explain why the heart rate and breating rate remain high after excercise

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2.13

Be able to describe how the structure of the leaf is adapted for photosynthesis, including:

A large surfave area

B contains chlorophyll in cholroplast to absorb light

C stomata for gas exchange( carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapour)

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2.14

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of how photosynthesis uses light energy to produce glucose and how this process can be modellled using the word equation for photosynthesis.

carbon dioxide+water=oxygen+glucose

(opposite of aerobic respiration)

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2.15

Be able to demonstrate an understanding of how limiting factors effect the rate of photosynthesis, including:

A light intensity

B CO2 concentration

C temperature

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2.16

Be able to investigate how factors, including the effect of light intensity, CO2 concentration or temperature, affect the rate of photosynthesis.

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2.17

 Be able to explain how the loss of water vapour from the leaves drives transpiration

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2.18

Be able to explain how water, glucose and mineral salts are transported through a plant, including

A mineral uptake in roots by active transport

B the role of xylem an phloem vessels

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2.19

Be able to describe how root hair cells are adapted to take up water by osmosis

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2.20

Be able to define osmosis as the movement of water molecules from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water through a patially permeable membrane

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2.21

Be able to investigate osmosis

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2.22

Be able to investigate the relation ship between organisms and their environment using feildwork techniques

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2.23

Be able to investigate the distribution of organisms, usin sampling techniques, including:

A pooters

B sweep nets/pond nets

C pitfall traps

D quadrats

and measurement environmental factors such as:

A temperature

B light intenisty

C pH

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3.1

Be able to evaluate the evidence for evolution based on fossil records

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3.2

Be able to explain why there are gaps in the fossil records, including:

A because fossils don't always form

B because soft tissue decays

C because many fossils are still yet to be found

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3.3 (H)

Be able to explain how the anatomy of the pentadactyl limb provides scientists with the evidence for evolution

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3.4

BE able to describe growth in terms of increase in size, length and mass

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3.5

Be able to interpret growtrh data in terms of percentile charts

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3.6

Be able to explain cell division, elongation and differentiation contribution to the growth and development of a plant

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3.7

Be able to explain how cell division and differentiation contribution to the growth and development of an animal

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3.8

Be able to recall the structure and function of the following parts of the blood, including:

A red blood cells

B white blood cells

C plasma

D platelets

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3.9

Be able to describe the grouping of cells into tissues and tissues into organs

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3.10

Be able to explain how the structure of the heart is related to its function, including:

A the four main blood vessels associated with the heart (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, vena cava0

B left artrium and ventrical to pump oxyginated blood

C right atrium and ventrical to pump deoxygenated blood

D valves to prevent backflow (names not required)

E eft ventrical has a thicker muscle wall than the right ventrical

F the direction of blood flow through the heart

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3.11

Be able to describe how the circulatory system transports substances arounf the body, increase:

A arteries transport blood away from the heart

B veins transport blood to the heart

C capillaries exchange materials with tissues

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3.12

Be able to describe the functions of the parts of the digestive system, including:

A mouth

B oesophagus

C stomach

D small and large intestines

E pancreas

F liver

G (H) gall bladder

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3.13

Be able to explain the role of the muscular wall of the alimentary canal in peristalsis

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3.14

Be able to explain the role of the digestive enzymes, increase:

A carebohydrates, including amlyase, which digest starch to simple sugars

B proteases, including pepsin, which digest proteins to amino acids

C lipase which digests fats to fatty acids and glycerol

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3.15 (H)

Be able to explain the role of bile in neutralising stomach acid and emulsifying fats

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3.16 (H)

Be able to explain how the structure of villi (large surface area, single layer of cells and capillary network) allows efficiencent absorption of the soluble products of digestion

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3.17

Be able to investigate the effect of different concentrations of digestive enzymes, using and evaluating models of the alimentary canal

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3.18

Be able to evaluate the evidence for the claimed benefits of the use of functional foods as part of a healthy diet, including:

A probiotics containing Bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus

Bprebiotic oligosaccharides

C plant stanol esters

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