Biology 2

Biology 2

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Specialised Cells

  • smallest living organisms - single cells. can carry out all functions of life. 
  • specialised cells - carry about a particular job, have specific function and structure 
  • cell becomes specialised so its adapted to its job. look very different to typical plant/animal cell
  • examples: sperm, eggs, red blood cells and nerve cells.
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Fat Cells

  • if you eat more food than need - body makes fat, stores it in fat cells
  • helps us to survive when food - short supply
  • three main adaptations: small amounts - cytoplasm. lots of fat 
  • few mitochondria - cell needs little energy
  • expand - 1000 times its original size - (fills with fat) 
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Cone Cells (human eye)

  • light-sensitive layer of eye (retina) makes us see with colour 
  • three main adaptations: outer segment has special chemical - changes chemically in coloured light. needs energy to change it to its original form.
  • middle segment packed with mitochondria. release the energy to reform visual pigment. lets us see continuously in colour.
  • final part: specialised synapse connects optical nerve. when coloured light makes visual pigment change - impulse is triggered. impulse crosses synapse travels along optic nerve to brain.   
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Root hair Cells

  • find it near tips of growing roots.
  • Plants have to take in - water (lots) and dissolved mineral ions
  • root hair cells helps to take up water - efficiently
  • always close to xylem tissue 
  • this carries water and dissolved ions to the rest of plant.
  • two main adaptations: root hairs increase surface area for water to move in cell
  • have large permanent vacuole speeds up movement by osmosis from soil across root hair cell  
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Sperm Cells

  • released far away from egg that fertisile. contains genetic information from male. 
  • need to move through water (animal) or female reproductive system to reach egg. have to break egg.
  • four main adapataions: long tail whips side-to-side helps move sperm.
  • middle section full of mitochondria - provides energy for tail
  • acrosome stores digestive enzymes  - breaks down outer layers of egg
  • large nucleus has genetic information  - passed on 
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