Biology 2

Additional Science

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Animal and Plant Cells

Structure in Common:

  • a Nucleus to control the cell activities
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  • Cytoplasm where many chemical reactions take place
  • a Cell Membrane that controls the movement of materials
  • Mitochondria where energy is released during aerobic respiration
  • Ribosomes where protiens are made (synthesised)

What do Plant cells have that Animal cells don't?

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Plant Cells

  • a rigid Cell wall for support
  • Chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
  • a Permanent Vacuole containing cell sap
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Specialised Cells

  • As organisms develop, some of their cells become specialised to carry out particular jobs - Differentiation
  • Differentiation happens much earlier in the development in animals than in plants
  • At first the egg is just a growing ball of cells, but when to organism gets bigger some of the celss change and become specialised.
  • For Plant cells cells may become xylem or root hair cells
  • Animal cells may develop into nerve or sperm cells

1. Two examples of specialised animal cells, which have not been mentioned

2. How is the structure of a nerve cell related to it's structure?

3. What do we call the process that results in some cells becoming specialised?

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1. Egg cells, muscle cells, white blood cells

2.It is long and has many endings to communicate with other nerves or effectors

3. Differentiation

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