Biology Topic 2

  • Created by: Tia-H
  • Created on: 13-04-19 21:57

Tissues

  • Tissue - A group of cells.
  • Organ - A group of tissues.
  • Organ system - Group of organs.

Animal Tissues:

  • Glandular - Secrete hormones & enzymes.
  • Muscular - Contract & relax.
  • Epithelial - Secretion, absorption & protection.

Plant Tissues:

  • Epidermal - Covers the outer surface.
  • Palisade mesophyll - Chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
  • Spongy mesophyll - Diffuses gas (has many air spaces) and photosynthesises.
  • Xylem - Transports water and dissolves material.
  • Phloem - Transports dissolved food.
  • Stomata - Lower epidermis, diffusion and helps guard cells close.
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Enzymes

A biological catalyst.

  • Controls metabolism (the sum of all reactions).
  • Denature - Active site loses shape because too hot/ cold or PH being wrong.
  • Active site - Where the reaction happens - has unique shape.
  • Enzymes are a long chain of folded amino acids (specific).

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Digestive Systems

  • Amylase -  Carbs & Starch to sugars.
  • Protease - Protein to amino acids.
  • Lipase - Fatty acids to speed up reactions.
  • Pancrease - Produces enzymes.
  • Liver - Produces bile.
  • Mouth - Contains saliva glands, teeth, toungue & amylase.
  • Oesophagous - Transports the food.
  • Stomach - Contains protease. Churns food. 
  • Small intestine -  Large surface area. Enzymes are used for food digestion (molecules made smaller).
  • Large intestine - Water is absorbed.
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Transpiration & Gas Exchange

Transpiration

  • Guard cells and stomata let water & minerals in/ out of the cell.
  • Xylem moves them from root to leaves.
  • Provides water for photosynthesis, transports mineral ions, cools the leaf and helps keep the plant healthy.
  • Affected by: light, temperature and humidity.

Gas Exchange

  • Nose -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli.
  • Alveoli have many capillaries and a large surface area.
  • Breathing in - Diaphram flattens, ribs out, volume increases and low pressure.
  • Breathing out - Diaphram goes up and out, ribs out,volume decreases and Higer pressure.
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The Heart & Blood

Helping the heart.

  • Stent - Small mesh tube inserted into partially blocked artery. A balloon is inflated to expand the stent. The ballon is removed from the expanded stent.
  • Vavle Replacement - Lasts 12 - 15 years, the faulty valve is replaced with a working one.
  • Pace maker - A small device implanted in the chest to regulate the heartbeat.
  • Artificial Heart - Temporary, risk of blood clots, no tissue match is needed.
  • CHD - The narrowing of the coronary arteries ( that supply blood to the heart) causing blood clots.

Blood/ Blood Vessels

  • Veins - Thin walls, low pressure, in the heart allow safe backflow.
  • Arteries - Thick muscular walls, higher pressure, oxygenated blood away from the heart.
  • Capillaries - One cell thick for diffusion.
  • Red Blood Cells - No nucleus, haemoglobin binds to O2, disk shaped.
  • White Bloods Cells - Produce: antibodies & antitoxins, engulf & digest pathogens.
  • Platelats - Cell fragments that help blood clotting. (For example, scabs)
  • Plasma - Transports blood cells & other substances. (For example, glocose)
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