biology term 1-cells

Equations for microscopes

By using the "I AM" trianle, you will be able to work out equations involving the magnification factor, the image size and the actual size

For example:

  • actual size * magnifiction = image size 
  • image size / magnification = actual size
  • image size / actual size= magnification 

remember to make sure image size and actual size are in the same measurement (e.g millimetres / micrometres/ nanometres) and that the answer is in the same measurement as the question asked. 

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Microscopes- Q and A

  • what century was the theory of lenses and focusing discovered?- 17th 
  •  what type of microscope invented fisrt?- Lense microscope
  • what structure was Hook viewing when he discovered the cell?- cork 
  • how many times could Anton .V.L magnify the lense by?-several 100 times 
  • which 4 types of cell was anton V.L able to see?- bacteria, yeast, sperm and blood.
  • when was the electron microscope invented?- 1931
  • how many times can an electron magnet multiply? - 1,000000 times 
  • what is the main drawback of an electron magnet?- the radiation kills living things
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What each part of the cell does

  • The Nucleus controls what the cell does. These are found in Eukaryotic cells.
  • The Cell Membrane lets some things in and out of the cell.
  • The Cytoplasm is a liquid gel where many chemical reactions happen e.g respiration.
  • The Mitochondria is where most of the energy is released during respiration.
  • The Chloroplast is the structure where proteins are made.
  • Ribosomes absorb light for photosythesis and contain the chlorophyll.
  • The Cell Wall supports the cell and made of cellulose which gives it strength.
  • The Vacuole is a bag of liquid which keeps cells rigid and gives support.
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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells

Eukaryotic cells contain a Nucleus e.g. plant or animal cell. Meanwhile, Prokaryotic cells don’t contain a Nucleus but store their DNA in the Nucleoid( a string of information).Specialised Cells are cells that have their own parts which do different things from each other. 

  • Eukaryotic cells mostly contain a Nucleus, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, a Cytoplasm, Chloroplasts and a Vacuole.
  • Prokaryotic cells mostly contain Flagella, Pilla, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes, a Nucleoid and Plasmids.
  • Specialised Cells all have different parts e.g a fat cell(where fat is stored) contain a Nucleus, a fat store, Mitochondria and a Cytoplasm.Wheras a Cone Cell contains a Visual Pigment, Mitochondria, a Nucleus and Nerve Cells.
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Different Specialised Cells

Fat Cell:

  • If you eat more fat than you need your body creates fat and stores it in fat cells. They contain a small amount of Mitochondria and Cytoplasm and a large amount of fat. They can expand - there 1000 bigger when it fills with fat.

Cone Cell:

  • Its found in the light sensitive area of your eye, the retina. It enables you to see colour. The outer segment contains a chemical to make you see. 

Root Cell:

  • They are cells on the surface of plant rootsthat grow into long hairs out of the soil. This gives the plant a big surface area for absorbing water and minerals from the soil. 

Sperm Cell:

  • They contain genetic information from the male parent to pass on to the offspring. They have to move fowards to the egg to try and break it. 

Nerve Cell:

  • They carry impulses around the body to enable us to respond to our enviroment.
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Organisation

  • cells work together to form a tissue.
  •  tissues work together to make an organ.
  • organs work together to make an organ system.
  • organ systems work together to make an organism.

E.G.muscle cell - muscle tissue - stomach - digestive system - human

  • Heart- pumps blood around the body
  • Brain- control centre of the body.
  • Lungs- lets you breathe.
  • Liver- breaks down toxins in the body.
  • Stomach- digests food.
  • Kidneys to filter waste urea out of the blood.
  • Bladder- stores urine.
  • Pancreas lets out enzymes.
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Diffusion

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What affects diffusion?
 Concentration
Temperature
Surface Area
Thickness
In the Lungs...
The lungs are full of tiny air sacs called Alveoli. When you breathe in they fill with oxygen which diffuses into the blood. Carbon Dioxide is diffused out of the blood into the Alveoli so it can be breathed out.

The speed at which colour diffuses can be discerned due to the concentration. The higher the concentration the faster it spreads. The lower the concentration the slower it spreads.

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Osmosis

Definitions:
The Solute- the thing that is dissolved in the water e.g. sugar
The Solvent- the stuff the solute dissolves in e.g. water
Osmosis- the movement of the solvent

When doing a practical, we meausered the length and mass of a potato before and after it had been soaked in water for a day. The potato’s were soaked in water ranging from distilled water to 1m of sugar solution. The potato that grew the most was the distilled potato because the potato absorbed water.

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Active Transport

Active transport is the particles moving up the concentration gradient if energy is used.

Cells that carry out active transportcontain large numbers of mitochondria.

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