- Created by: babyblue18459
- Created on: 17-12-19 11:20
What is RNA and the types of RNA?
- Ribonucleic Acid
- It is a smaller/shorter polynucleotide chain than DNA
- DNA is stable, whereas, RNA is created for its job then breaks down (short lived)
- Thymine base is replaced by uracil
- Involves the same idea of 3-5 prime ends
There are three types of RNA:
- messenger RNA - involved in protein synthesis; in nucleus and cytoplasm; simple strand; 1000 nucleotides long; complementary to DNA bases to make proteins
- transfer RNA - involved in protein synthesis; in nucleus and cytoplasm; 80 nucleotides long; attach to different amino acids and bring them to mRNA
- ribosomal RNA - found in ribosomes; may be single or double stranded; long (longer than 1000 nucleotides, and therefore more complex)
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What is the equation for ATP?
ADP + Inorganic phosphate (Pi) (+Energy) <-> ATP (+H20)
- Going right (->) the enzyme used to make ATP is ATP synthase. This is a condensation reaction
- Going left (<-) the enzyme used to break down ATP is ATP hydrolase. This is a hydrolysis reaction.
- In extreme circumstances, ADP can become adenosine monophosphate
- Dephosphoylation of ATP gives ADP and an inorganic ion
- ADP can rephosphorylate into ATP
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What is ATP?
- Adenosine triphosphate
- Mitochondria are involved in its production
- It is known as the universal energy carrier (even though it cannot be transferred between cells - the cell its made is where it stays because its too unstable)
- Made up of a nitrogenous base (Adenine), a ribose sugar and three phosphates
- It is an unstable molecule because its easily formed and broken down. It isn't supposed to be stable (e.g of stable molecules includes lipids and carbs)
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