Biology (UP) - RNA Structure and ATP


What is RNA and the types of RNA?

  • Ribonucleic Acid
  • It is a smaller/shorter polynucleotide chain than DNA
  • DNA is stable, whereas, RNA is created for its job then breaks down (short lived)
  • Thymine base is replaced by uracil
  • Involves the same idea of 3-5 prime ends

There are three types of RNA:

  • messenger RNA - involved in protein synthesis; in nucleus and cytoplasm; simple strand; 1000 nucleotides long; complementary to DNA bases to make proteins
  • transfer RNA - involved in protein synthesis; in nucleus and cytoplasm; 80 nucleotides long; attach to different amino acids and bring them to mRNA
  • ribosomal RNA - found in ribosomes; may be single or double stranded; long (longer than 1000 nucleotides, and therefore more complex)
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What is the equation for ATP?

ADP + Inorganic phosphate (Pi) (+Energy) <-> ATP (+H20)

  • Going right (->) the enzyme used to make ATP is ATP synthase. This is a condensation reaction
  • Going left (<-) the enzyme used to break down ATP is ATP hydrolase. This is a hydrolysis reaction.
  • In extreme circumstances, ADP can become adenosine monophosphate
  • Dephosphoylation of ATP gives ADP and an inorganic ion
  • ADP can rephosphorylate into ATP
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What is ATP?

  • Adenosine triphosphate
  • Mitochondria are involved in its production
  • It is known as the universal energy carrier (even though it cannot be transferred between cells - the cell its made is where it stays because its too unstable)
  • Made up of a nitrogenous base (Adenine), a ribose sugar and three phosphates
  • It is an unstable molecule because its easily formed and broken down. It isn't supposed to be stable (e.g of stable molecules includes lipids and carbs)
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