Biology-Cell Structure

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  • Created by: jgg1
  • Created on: 25-01-16 19:49

Prokaryotic functions

Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton- The network of protein fibres and microtubules found within the cell that gives structure to the cell and is responsible for the movement of many materials within it. Two types of protein fibre make up the cytoskeleton:

Actin - These are fibres like the protein fibres found in muscle cells.                          

Role:  White blood cell movemen  Organelle movement.                     

Tubulin-  These protein fibres form cylinders called microtubules.

Role:  Movement of a cell through liquid.Waft a liquid past the cell. Organelle / Chromosome movement.

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Prokaryotic and Eukayotic differences

Protien Synthesis

Functions of organelles continued

Lysosomes- Contain / release digestive enzymes Digest / break down organelles Chloroplasts- Photosynthesis CO2+ H2O---- C6H12O6+ O2                                         Plasma Membrane - Controls entry/exit of substances into/out of the cell - Acts as a barrier separating the cell contents from the environment                                        Centrioles - Formation of spindle fibres during cell division                                            Flagella - Movement of cell                                                                                                         Cilia - Wafts mucus and bacteria trapped within away from lungs

Cytoplasm - Site of chemical reactions

Cell Wall - Gives cell shape / strength / support   - Prevents bursting- Fully permeable Vacuole - Storage of salts / sugars / pigment - Provides turgor support / controls water potential

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Roles of the cytoskeleton

Provides strength / stability / support to the cell

Determines shape / moves membrane for endo / exocytosis

Movement of organelles / RNA / protein / chromosomes / chromatids

Movement of flagella for cell movement

Movement of cilia to move mucus containing bacteria etc

Attachment to / hold organelles in place

Make up centrioles / spindle fibres

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Prokaryotic Cell

Prokaryotic- organism having cells without a ture nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

Copyright S-cool (http://www.s-cool.co.uk/assets/learn_its/alevel/biology/cells-and-organelles/introduction-to-cells/prokaryotic-cell.jpg)

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Mitochondria& Chloroplasts similarities and differ

Mitochondria

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Eukaryotic Cell

An organsim having cells with a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles.

(http://www.s-cool.co.uk/assets/learn_its/alevel/biology/cells-and-organelles/introduction-to-cells/animal-cell.jpg)Copyright S-cool (http://www.s-cool.co.uk/assets/learn_its/alevel/biology/cells-and-organelles/introduction-to-cells/plant-cell.jpg)

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Cilia and Flagella

Flagella- few and long in length,called undulipodia in eukaryotic cells.

Cilia- many and shorter in length, move in wafting motion.

Both have the same structures:

Both contain microtubules, 9 pairs of these are arranged in a circle, 2 form a central bundle, called 9+2 arrangement. 

Both help movement by using energy from ATP

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Chloroplast

Functions of organelles

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7 characteristics of life

MOVEMENT (all living things move – even plants!)

RESPIRATION (oxygen + glucose ---------- carbon dioxide + water + energy)

SENSITIVITY (detecting and responding to changes in the surroundings)

GROWTH (remember an organism ‘grows’ by producing more cells)

REPRODUCTION (making more of the same - can be sexual or asexual)

EXCRETION (expelling waste products, e.g. carbon dioxide and urea)

NUTRITION (taking in and using food)

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