Biology 7.1-3 Peak Performance

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Describe the difference between a tendon and a ligament

  • A tendon is inelastic and transmits the forces from muscles to the bones.
  • A ligament is a tough elastic band which holds the bones together and limits how far the bone can move. It forms the cartilage at the end of each bone.

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Ball and socket joint/Hinge joint

What is the difference between a hinge joint and a ball-and-socket joint?

  • A ball-and-socket joint move in all directions
  • A hinge joint moves only backward and forward


Ball-and-socket joint                                       Hinge Joint

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Synovial Joint

Name the parts of a synovial joint

Cartilage, ligament, muscle, bone, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, tendon


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Arm Muscles

Name the muscle that a) bends the arm b) straightens the arm

a) Biceps contract to make the arm bend  b) Triceps contract to make the arm straighten


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Antagonistic Pairs

What is an antagonistic pair of muscles?

Muscles that work opposite eachother: one will contract as the other relaxes to make a joint bend or straighten


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Fitness affected by lifestyle

If you worked in a fitness club, what health questions might you ask new clients when they joined?

What medical history do you have?

Your regime will be adjusted around any circulatory and respiratory problems you may have, and they need to know about any treatments you have had or any medication you take

What is your lifestyle history?

If you have a healthy and active lifestyle you will progress quikcer than someone who doesn't. The duration and difficultly will be adapted to suit your needs

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Fitness Tests

What fitness tests can be carried out?

  • Heart rate: as you exercise the heart rate increases as your heart beats faster to deliver more food and nutrients to your muscles. It is recommended that you train at about 60% of your maximum heart rate
  • Blood pressure: when you do exercise, your heart beats more forcefully and your blood pressure increases
  • Recovery period: the fitter you are the faster your recovery period after physical activities
  • Proportion of body fat: Too much body fat puts strain on your heart and your arteries may become dangerously narrowed
  • Body mass index (BMI): this measures your body mass based on your height. BMI = body mass/height^2
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What is the difference between accuracy and repeatability?

Accuracy: how close it is to the true value

Repeatability: how close the data is to one another after repeating the test

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Describe the symptoms and treatment for a sprain

Symptoms include: Difficulty to bend joint, swelling, soreness, cramps, bruising

Treatment: RICE, simple stretching routines, exercises given by physiotherapist 

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What is RICE?

Rest: immobilising the injured area

Ice: acts as an anaesthetic, reduces blood flow and swelling

Compression: applying a bandage, reduces swelling

Elevate: keeps excess fluid from area, reduces swelling

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What are the most common injuries?

Sprains: overstretching a ligament

Torn ligaments/tendons: if a joint is twisted, a ligament or tendon may tear. Tendons can snap after being inflamed and stretched

Dislocation: Bones can pop out of place if put under pressure and the cartilage can't absorb all the energy

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