Biology Bone Structure

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  • Created by: MaxR1
  • Created on: 11-11-15 17:12

Why do we need bones?

  • It allows us to move and bend dynamically
  • Although our muscles give us strength, the bones support our body when carrying something heavy.
  • They give our organs protection (Ribcage protects the hears)
  • The production of White blood cells in bone marrow
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What is bone?

Bone is a composition of Calcium Phosphate and Collagen

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Joint examples

A joint is:

Where 2 or more bones meet.

4 common types:

  • Fixed Joint - Cranium (Skull)
  • Hinge - Elbow, Ankle and Knee
  • Pivot - Neck
  • Ball and Socket - Leg, arm, hip and shoulder
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Joint uses

Fixed Joint - These joints are immovable, these are held together by fibrous connective tissue, composed of Collagen.

Hinge Joint - Where two bones meet, but has limited movement, it can only flex and extend, or move in two dimensions

Pivot joint - It allows the neck to pivot, or rotate

Ball & Socket - The "ball" slots into a "socket". Allows the leg, arm, shoulder and hip to move in three dimensions. Surrounded by synovial fluid.

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Definitions of words

Tendon - Tough cord that does not stretch, attaches the muscle across joints

Cartilage - Tough, smooth substance that covers the end of bones

Ligament - A tough band of fibres that joins bones together in a joint

Synovial Fluid - Lubricates the joint

Synovial Capsule - Encloses the fluid in the joints

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Antogonistic Muscles

Antogonistic muscles are a pair of muscles that do the opposite to each other.

An example of this is the triceps and biceps, if you straighten your arm, the biceps relax and the triceps contract.

If you bend your arm, the opposite happens, your biceps contract, and your triceps relax

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Fish - Explanation

Fish swim by contracting the muscles down each side of the body in turn. The muscles pull on the vertebral column and produce wave-like undulations which travel down the length of the fish pulling sideways and backwards against the water

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Fish - Fins and their uses

  • Dorsal Fin (top) - Balance
  • Pectoral fin (side, come in a pair) - steering
  • Pelvic Fin (Bottom, towards the back) - Steering
  • Anal Fin (Bottom, quite literally) - Balance
  • Caudal Fin (At the back) - Forward movement
  • Apidose Fin (Top, behind Dorsal Fin)
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Fish - Movement

  • Pitch - Up and Down
  • Roll - Turning on Y axis
  • Yaw - Turning on X axis
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Water can support an animal with a large mass (e.g. Whale, its organs do not get crushed by water pressure)

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Walkers v Sprinters - Streamlined


  • Body Position - Straight, rigid
  • Leg bend - Almost no bend
  • Arm Swing - Small swings
  • Lift off the ground - None/Very litte lift


  • Body Position - Relaxed, Streamlined
  • Leg Bend - A lot of bend for maximum stride length
  • Arm Swing - Large Swings for minimal resistance and increased power
  • Lift off the ground - A lot of lift for maximum thrust and power
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Drag and Thrust

In order to run the person must generate enough thrust to overcome the effects of drag

Thrust - The action which the animal uses to push against the environment in order to move

Drag - The force which the environment exerts to resist the animal's forward movement

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Support in plants

What kinds of forces do plants have to withstand?

  • Rain
  • Predators
  • Wind
  • Snow

Plants are supported by:

  • Presense of lignin as the plants matures e.g. Tree trunks contain a lot of lignin
  • Strong roots - Good anchorage
  • Plant cells take in water into their vacuoles, pressing out against the cell wall, making the cell stiff/rigid. This is called Turgor Pressure, whickh makes the cell turgid
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Food and digestion 1

We need food for:

  • Energy
  • Growth and Repair
  • Health
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Food and digestion 2

Carbohydrate - Found in Bread, potato and cereal (sugar and starch are also carbs) - Needed for energy

Protein - Found in meat, fish and eggs - Needed for Growth and Repair

Fat - Found in for Cream, butter, milk and oil - Needed for a store of energy

Vitamins - Found in Vegetables and cereal - Needed to keep things 'ticking over'  (Vit D means Healthy bones - Vit A means good eyesight)

Minerals - Found in Meat, milk and cereal - Needed for strong bones (Calcium keeps bones strong - Iron keeps blood good)

Fibre - Found in Fruit, Veg and cereal - Needed to keep you regular

Water - Found in Water and most foods - Needed for hydration

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