Describe the nature of sleep (9)
The sleep–wake cycle offers important insights into the nature of sleep such as:
the role of the biological clocks
the SCN and the pineal gland
the role of biochemicals such as the melatonin.
Sleep DeprivationSleep deprivation research has been carried out to try to clarify the functions of sleep. The reasoning being that the ill effects of not sleeping will reveal the functions of sleep by showing us what happens if sleep is restricted or stopped.
Total Sleep DeprivationTotal sleep deprivation is when the individual experiences constant wakefulness, usually over a temporary period of time.
Partial Sleep Deprivation-Partial sleep deprivation is when the individual experiences a reduction in the amount of sleep compared to normal. Partial sleep deprivation also occurs when participants are deprived of one particular stage of sleep.
Outline explanations of primary and secondary inso
Insomnia-condition in which there are problems falling asleep and/or staying asleep, and the sleep that occurs tends not to be deep and is easily disturbed.
Insomnia is also, unsurprisingly, linked with fatigue, having poor attention, impaired judgement, decreased performance, being irritable, and an increased risk of accidents.
Insomnia is not a single condition as there are different forms based on the degrees of severity (mild, moderate, severe, acute, chronic) and the causes of the insomnia.
Factors affecting insomnia:
- Envirormental Factors
- Sleep Apnoea
Primary insomnia-(most common) There is a sleep problem, but there is no physiological or psychiatric cause, and it is likely that the sleep problem is the result of maladaptive behaviours or learning.
The clinical characteristics are that the individual has suffered from insomnia for at least a month but this would not be linked with any other sleep disorder, such as parasomnia or narcolepsy, nor with another psychopathology such as clinical depression, nor with medications or substance abuse. Worrying about the insomnia can lead to a cycle that is hard to break because the more a person focuses on their sleep problems the less likely they are to get good quality sleep.
Secondary insomnia-is insomnia that has a specific cause. Examples of such causes include sleep apnoea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), circadian rhythm disorders due to night shiftwork, and various medical, substance use, and emotional problems.