Biological Explanation for Abnormality AO1
The biological model defines abnormality as mental illness, a physical disease.
The Biological Model states the causes are:
Brain damage - physical damage to the brain.
Infection - damage caused by infection (e.g. flu).
Genes - increased chance of developing certain mental illnesses due to genes.
Biochemistry - chemicals or neurotransmitters in the brain functioning abnormally.
The Role of Genes And Infection
Infection - Research shows, for instance, that 14% of schizophrenia cases are caused by flu virus in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Genes - Research shows that the children of someone with schizophrenia, for instance, have a 10% chance of developing the illness - whereas the general population only has a 1% chance of developing it!
Biological Explanation for Abnormality AO2 - NRRR
Criticisms of the theory:
No Blame - By putting the condition down to just biology, you remove any blame for that person's actions.
Reductionist - It reduces a complex problem into a simple idea and disregards any other factors involved besides physical/biological problems.
Relinquishing Responsibility - Encourages patients to pass on the responsibility for their own "wellness" onto professionals, such as doctors or psychologists, removing their own responsibility for their recovery.
Support - McGuffin et al (1996)
McGuffin et al (1996) found the concordance in monozygotic twins (46%) was higher than in dizygotic twins (20%) for depression.