- Created by: Rosiem2102
- Created on: 17-12-18 22:21
- Strong association between use of TAs and the dopamine hypothesis.
- TAs work as antagonists in the dopamine system. (Reduce action of neurotransmitter)
- Dopamine levels build up initially but then production is reduced.
- Normalises neurotransmitters in key areas of the brain, reducing symptoms such as hallucinations.
- Effective sedative (histamine receptors).
- Calm patients with SZ and other conditions.
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- Withdrawn after deaths due to blood condition (agranulocytosis)
- Remarketed when discovered to be more effectve than TAs.
- Regular blood tests.
- Binds to dopamine receptors.
- Acts on serotonin and glutamate receptors.
- Improve mood and reduce depression and anxiety.
- May improve cognitive functioning.
- Perscribed when there is high risk of suicide.
- More recently developed AA
- Attempt to produce drug as effective as Clozapine but without side effects
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Evidence for effectiveness
- Thornley et al.
- Reviewed studies comparing effects of Chlorpromazine to control conditions (placebo)
- Chlorpromazine associated with better overall functioning and reduced symptom severity.
- Relapse rate lower.
- Clozapine more effective than TAs and other AAs.
- Effective in 30-50% of treatment-resistant cases where TAs have failed.
- Results inconclusive for Risperidone.
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Serious side effects
- Side effects range from mild to serious and even fatal.
- Stiff jaw
- Weight gain
- Itchy skin
- Long term use - tardive dyskinesia (involuntary facial movements)
- Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
- High temperature, delirium and coma
- 0.1-just over 2%
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Use of antipsychotics depends on the dopamine hypo
- Idea that high levels of dopamine activity in the subcortex of the brain.
- Evidence to show that this is not a complete explanation.
- Dopamine levels may in fact be too low.
- If this is true then it's not clear how antipsychotics work.
- Modern understanding suggests that they shouldn't work.
- Undermined faith in APs
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Problems with evidence for effectiveness
- Some successful trials have their data published multiple times.
- Evidence exaggerated of positive effects.
- Easy to demonstrate positive effects (sedative)
- Short-term benefits
The chemical cosh argument
- APs have been used to calm patients in hospitals.
- Benefits staff rather than patients.
- Seen as a human rights abuse.
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