Biological Molecules

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What do cells use carbohydrates for?

As a source of energy and a way of storing energy

Energy is usually small simple sugars such as glucose- Plants store this in the form of starch and animals store it as glycogen.

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What three elements make up carbohydrates

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

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What are monosaccharides?

Monosaccharides- 1 sugar

Monosaccharides are simple sugars e.g.

Pentose Sugars (Ribose & Deoxyribose) -5 carbon atoms

Hexose Sugars (Glucose, Fructose, & galactose) -6 carbon atoms

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What is the structure of the pentose sugar ribose

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham • This is the structure of the pentose sugar ribose 8 1.1 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides O CC ... (

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What is the structure of alpha glucose? What is th

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham • Glucose actually exists in two forms (isomers) and you need to know both of them. 9 1.1 Car... (

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What are disaccharides?

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham • Disaccharides are made up of two monosaccharides that have been joined together by a glycos... (

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What type of reaction takes place to form a glycos

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham • A condensation reaction occurs in order to form a glycosidic bond between two monosaccharid... (

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How can you split disaccharides?

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham • You can do the opposite reaction to split disaccharides into monosaccharides. • This is cal... (

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What are polysaccharides? how are they formed? Why

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham • If you continue joining together monosaccharides with glycosidic bonds you can make very lo... (

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What is starch? What 2 compounds is starch made up

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham STARCH • Starch is the energy store used by plants. • When the plant makes glucose in photosy... (

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Starch- Amylose

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham STARCH-Amylose 17 1.1 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides AMYLOSE Made of between 200-5000 α- gluco... (

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Starch- Amylopectin

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham STARCH-Amylopectin 18 1.1 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides AMYLOPECTIN Branched polymer of α-glu... (

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Glycogen- What is it made up of?

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham GLYCOGEN 19 1.1 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides GLYCOGEN This is the energy store for animals a... (

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What is cellulose? What is it used to make? What i

It is a very strong substance. Used for making cell walls

Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham CELLULOSE • Made of β-glucose molecules joined by 1,4-glycosidic bonds. • Alternate molecules... (

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What do the cross links made from other strands li

Hydrogen Bonds

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Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham Summary of functions • Starch in plants provides a mixture of quick and slow energy release d... (

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Biological Molecules


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