biological molecules


Molecules within living things

Carbohydrates= used to store and supply energy

Proteins = used for transport and structure

Lipids = part of cell membrane insulator and minor energy supply

Water = importnt in the formation of many molecules and melaboli reactions

Nucleic acids = made up of nucletides. These are DNA and RNA

Enzymes = made up of proteins - they are biological catalysts

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Types of bonds

Covalent =Strong bonds formed by sharing electrons. Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds.

Ionic = Occur between two oppositely charged ions. Ions are formed by loss or gain of electrons.

Hydrogen = Form where slightly positively charged part of a molecule meets a slightly charged part of another molecule. the indiidual bonds are week but one molecule may have 1000's of hydrogen bonds within it - can stabilise a large molecule.

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Carbohydrates (monosaccharides)

Biological molecules are those found in living organisms. They are made up of long chains with a carbon back bone as carbon bonds easily formed with other carbons.

Inorganic = found in both living things and non - living situations. e.g. water mineral ions

Organic= only produced by living things contains 2 or more carbon atoms e.g.carbohydrates lipid and proteins

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Properties and the general formula of monosacchari


  •  simple sugars e.g. a- glucose
  •  soluble
  •  small molecules
  •  low melting point
  •  crystalline form
  •  sweet  

General formula =

if N= 3, triose (glyceral dehyde)

if N = 5 pentose (fructose, ribose)

if N= 6 hexose (glucose, galactose)

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