Molecules within living things
Carbohydrates= used to store and supply energy
Proteins = used for transport and structure
Lipids = part of cell membrane insulator and minor energy supply
Water = importnt in the formation of many molecules and melaboli reactions
Nucleic acids = made up of nucletides. These are DNA and RNA
Enzymes = made up of proteins - they are biological catalysts
Types of bonds
Covalent =Strong bonds formed by sharing electrons. Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds.
Ionic = Occur between two oppositely charged ions. Ions are formed by loss or gain of electrons.
Hydrogen = Form where slightly positively charged part of a molecule meets a slightly charged part of another molecule. the indiidual bonds are week but one molecule may have 1000's of hydrogen bonds within it - can stabilise a large molecule.
Biological molecules are those found in living organisms. They are made up of long chains with a carbon back bone as carbon bonds easily formed with other carbons.
Inorganic = found in both living things and non - living situations. e.g. water mineral ions
Organic= only produced by living things contains 2 or more carbon atoms e.g.carbohydrates lipid and proteins
Properties and the general formula of monosacchari
- simple sugars e.g. a- glucose
- small molecules
- low melting point
- crystalline form
General formula =
if N= 3, triose (glyceral dehyde)
if N = 5 pentose (fructose, ribose)
if N= 6 hexose (glucose, galactose)