Biolgy 1A&1B

They are all the topics that are needed to be revised for AQA biology GCSE

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Diet and Metabolic Rate

  • Metabolism= Energy that is used by the food
  • Metaboli Rate= Rate Your Using Energy
  • VITAMINS=HEALTH
  • FIBRE=DIGESTION
  • PROTEIN=CELL REPAIR AND GROWTH
  • FATS=WARMTH
  • CARBOHYDRATES=ENERGY
  • UNBALANCED DIET= MALNOURISHED
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Health

  • Helath is affected by an unbalanced diet
  • Diet thats are not balanced malnourished
  • Too much food and an unbalanced diet can lead to obesity
  • Hormonal problems lead to obesity
  • Eating too much can lead to obesity ,high blood pressure and heart problems
  • People can inherit thing which can lead to obesity
  • Exercise builds muscle and increases the energy used
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Fighting Disease

BACETRIA

  • Small cells reproduce, make you feel ill by

       1) Invading cell

       2) Produce toxin

VIRUS

  • Not cells, they are tiny ,replicate by invading the cell and they copy themselves, then burst with viruses

Our body has 3 main defence systems in the body which are :

1) DEFENCE SYSTEM

1. Consume them- white cells enulf them

2) Antigens

1. They detect the microbe and produce antibodies if virus is detected in the future then this will alread be immune to the sytem, so it already has anitibodies produced so it will invade the cell with antibodes

3) PRODUCE ANTITOXINS

1. Produces antitoxins- Poison and invades the bacteria

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control Nervous System

  • STIMULUS= CHNAGE= LIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH
  • RECEPTOR= SENSOR= ORGAN
  • CNS= CONTROL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • EFFECTOR= MUSCLE AND GLAND= RESPOND IN DIFFERENT WAYS

SENSORY NEURONE

  • Nerve cell carries signal as a elcectrical pulse form the RECEPTOR in the sense organ to the CNS which involves the spinal cord and the bran only

RELAY NEURONE

  • Nerve cell carries signal from sensory neurone to motor neurone

EFFECTOR

  • Reaches the muscle and responds in different ways
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Drugs

  • Recreational drugs used for fun
  • Performance enhancing drugs improve performance
  • STATINS
  • Prescribed drugs used to lower blood cholestrol
  • CANNABIS
  • Illegal drugs
  • Mental health problems
  • Recreational drugs changes your body chemistry
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Hormones

  • Hormones are chemical messages which travel in the blood to activate target cell
  • controls everything
  • Releases chemicals in the blood
  • OVARIES
  • Produce oestrogen, which is involved in the menstrual cylce
  • PITUITARY GLAND
  • Produces many hormones incliding FSH & LH which involves the menstrual cycle
  • NERVE
  • Fast action
  • Act for a short time
  • Woks on a precise area
  • HORMONE
  • Slower action
  • Act for a long time
  • General way
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Drug Testing

1) Drugs are tested on human cells in the lab

2) The next step is to test on live animals, to see if the drug works , to find out how harmful it is and the correct dosage. The drug should be tested on 2 mammals t is the law, some people think it is crulel to test on animals but others think it is the safest way to do it.

3) If the drug passes then it should bbe tested o human volunteers in a clinical trial, first the drug is tested on the healthy volunteers , to make sure there are no side effects

4)If the results fo the test are good then it can be tested on ill people . To test howe well  drugs work, patients are putninto two groups , one is given the placebo and the others are given the drug

5)The patient doest know which one they have and neither does the doctorunil the results have been gathered nobody knows

Things have gone wrong in the past, in the past in 1950 thalidomide was a sleeping pill , but ws found to be a morning sickness in a pregnant woman, caused abnormalities to the babies, 10,000 babies were affected by thalidomide only half survived. The drug was banned bur recently it has been used in the treatment leprosy and some other cancers.

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Fertility

  • FSH that are too llow casue theri eggs to mature
  • If oestrogen is taken everyday after a while egg development and production stop and stay stopped
  • Oestrogen can used to prevent the release of an egg
  • IVF (HELPS TO HAVE CHILDREN)
  • 1) Collect egg from ovaries and fertilise using mens sperm. They turn into an embryo
  • 2) 1 or 2  transfer into womb
  • 3) FSH & LH  are given before egg collection
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Adaptations

  • ARTIC ANIMALS
  • small surface area=To reduce heat loss
  • Well insulated=Thick layer of blubber
  • Camoflauge= white fur to avoid predators or sneaking up on prey
  • DESERT PLANTS
  • Small surface area = plants lose water vapour from surface of leaf
  • Water storage tssues= e.g cactus stores water in its thick stem
  • Maximising water absorption= shallow roots t absorb water
  • DESERT ANIMALS
  • Large surface are
  • Loose less water by producing littl concentrated urine and by sweat
  • Have thin layers of skin
  • Camoflauge skin to deter from predators
  • SOME PLANTS AND ANIMALS ARE ADAPTED TO DETER PREDATORS
  • Various of features which protect them against being eaten
  • Some have armour
  • Produce Poision
  • Have big warning colours
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Competition and enviromental change

PLANTS

  • LIGHT
  • SPACE
  • WATER
  • MINERALS

Animals

  • SPACE
  • FOOD
  • WATER
  • MATES
  • SHELTER

Enviroment where animals and plants live changes all the time

ENVORMENTAL CHANGES AFFECT

1) POPULATION INCREASE

2) POPULATION SIZE DECREASE

3) POPULATION DISTRIBUTION CHANGES

LIVING FACTORS

  • Infectious disease
  • Change number of predators
  • Change numer of prey or food resources
  • Nuber of types of competitors

NON LIVING FACTORS

  • Change in average temprature
  • Change in average rainfall
  • A change in water or air pollution 
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Measuring Enviromental Change

Enviromental changes can be measured using living indicators

Some organisms are sensitive to changes= Indicator species

Non living indicator=

  • Satellites to measure temprature air pollution can be monitored by looking at weather stations  and the lichen which measures( car exhaust, engine)
  • Measure rain by using rain gauges
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Biomass

Each bar on graph shows the living mass of that animal on a food change

Work outthe Biomass

100 plants

1 bar is 5

you need 20 bars because 20 goes into 100.

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Variation

Everybody is different in their own way

These differences are called variation

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Energy Transfer and Decay

Energy from the sun

Then to plants to produce their own food (photosynthesis)

Then the energy is lost through waste, heat e.t.c

Living things are made from materials in the world

Plants- take CO2, hydrogen, nitrogen form soil or air, they turn into carbohydrates, fats, proteins and pass through food chain

They are returned to soil when animals die or digest their food and excrete it gets recycled by getting put back into the soil and the process starts again.

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Biomass

Each bar on graph shows the living mass of that animal on a food change

Work outthe Biomass

100 plants

1 bar is 5

you need 20 bars because 20 goes into 100.

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Variation

Everybody is different in their own way

These differences are called variation

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Energy Transfer and Decay

Energy from the sun

Then to plants to produce their own food (photosynthesis)

Then the energy is lost through waste, heat e.t.c

Living things are made from materials in the world

Plants- take CO2, hydrogen, nitrogen form soil or air, they turn into carbohydrates, fats, proteins and pass through food chain

They are returned to soil when animals die or digest their food and excrete it gets recycled by getting put back into the soil and the process starts again.

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Varition

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Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

  • `Sexual reproduction is where two organisms which are combined together to produce an offspring
  • In Sexual production the mother and father produce gametes ( sperm, eggs)
  • In a human cell it has 23 chromosomes 
  • The egg form the mother and sperm of the father will then fuse together( fertilisation)
  • This is why the offspring inherits features from both parents it recieves a mixture of chromosomes form the mum and dad and its upto the chromosomes how you turn out 

 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION INVOLVES THE FUSION OF MALE AND FEMALE GAMATES. BECAUSE THERE ARE TWO PARENTS THE OFFSPRING WILL CONTAIN A MIXTURE OF BOTH PAREnts

Asexual Reproduction

  •  IN ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION THERE'S ONLY ONE PARENT, THERE'S NO FUSION OF GAMETES, NO MIXING OF CHROMOSOMES AND NO GENETIC VARIATION .THE OFFSPRING ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO THE PARENT 
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Fighting Disease

  • Pain killers 'asprin' doesn kill the virus it just reliefs the pain
  • Antibiotics kills the virus without damaging the cell, there are different antibiotics for different viruses
  • But it doesnt always destroy all of it some of the strains dont get destroyed they will survive and reproduce
  • Baceria CAN mutate
  • mutation ometimes causes them not to be killed 'resistan' by antibiotics
  • To slow down the rate of surving strains dont over prescribe antibiotics

FIGHTING DISEASE-DRUGS-PAST AND FUTURE

  • Semmelweis cut deaths y using antiseptics and made everyone dip their hand in this solution

 

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SYNAPSES AND REFLEXES

  • Reflex are automatic responses they are to prevent injuries
  • Nervous system is sent by chemicals
  • Connection between twon neurones = SYNAPSE

1) STIMULUS= BEE STING

2)  RECETOR=STIMULATION OF PAIN

3)TRAVEL ALONG SENSPORY NEURONE

4) IMPULSES ARE PASSED VIA A SYNAPSE

5) TRAVELS ALONG MOTOR NEURONE TO THE EFFECTOR

REMEMBER: SRSRMER = STIMULS,RECEPTOR, SENSORY NEURONE,RELAY NEURONE, EFFECTOR, RECEPTOR

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The menstural cycle

Has 4 stages

1) The lining of the utereus breaks down

2) Lining of the uterues builds up

3) The egg is released

4) Lining of the uterus of the maintained

3 MAIN HORMONES

1) FSH

  • It is produced by the pituitary gland
  • Egg to mature in one oary
  • Stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen

2) OESTROGEN

  • Produced in ovaries
  • Causes pituatry to produce LH
  • Inhibits the further release of FSH

3) LH

  • Produced by pituatry gland
  • Stimulates the release of an egg at around the middle of te menstrual cycle
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Fertility

  • FSH that are too llow casue theri eggs to mature
  • If oestrogen is taken everyday after a while egg development and production stop and stay stopped
  • Oestrogen can used to prevent the release of an egg
  • IVF (HELPS TO HAVE CHILDREN)
  • 1) Collect egg from ovaries and fertilise using mens sperm. They turn into an embryo
  • 2) 1 or 2  transfer into womb
  • 3) FSH & LH  are given before egg collection
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Genes, chromosomes, DNA

  • 1) Most cells have a nucleus
  • 2)Human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. 2 pairs of each number
  • 3) Chromosomes that carry genes which control the development of different hair colour 
  • 4)A gene is a short length of chromosome
  • 5)The DNA is coiled up to form  the arms of the chromosome 
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Genes, chromosomes, DNA

  • 1) Most cells have a nucleus
  • 2)Human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. 2 pairs of each number
  • 3) Chromosomes that carry genes which control the development of different hair colour 
  • 4)A gene is a short length of chromosome
  • 5)The DNA is coiled up to form  the arms of the chromosome 
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